Next Article in Journal
Experimental Tests on a Dowel-Type Timber Connection and Validation of Numerical Models
Next Article in Special Issue
An Investigation of Thermal Comfort and Adaptive Behaviors in Naturally Ventilated Residential Buildings in Tropical Climates: A Pilot Study
Previous Article in Journal
A Systematic Method to Analyze Force Majeure in Construction Claims
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 117;

Patients’ Perspectives on the Design of Hospital Outpatient Areas

School of Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Factors in Green Building)
Full-Text   |   PDF [252 KB, uploaded 6 December 2017]


There is a growing interest among healthcare managers and designers in moving towards a ‘patient-centred’ design of health and care facilities by integrating patient perceptions and expectations of the physical environment where care takes place. Increased interests in physical environments can mostly be attributed to our improved understanding of their role in patients’ health outcomes and staff productivity. There is a gap in the literature on users’ perspectives on physical settings in the context of healthcare. Moreover, the connection of care services with the design of the facility is often overlooked partly due to the lack of evidence. This research was aimed at filling the gap by exploring outpatients’ perspectives on design factors related to the areas frequented by them, e.g., hospital waiting areas. A 16-item questionnaire was conducted among randomly selected outpatients in two hospitals in Qingdao, China, with a response rate of 84.3%. Five principal factors were identified: sensory; lighting and thermal; facilities; spatial; and seating design, which agreed with the literature. Non-parametric tests were applied to assess variances in constructed principal dimensions concerning demographic variables. Female outpatients were found to be more perceptive of the ‘sensory design’ factors than males. The number of previous visits to the hospital was found to be associated with ‘spatial’ and ‘seating design’ factors, while respondents’ age had an association with ‘sensory’ and ‘seating design’ factors. Respondents ranked ‘noise’ and ‘air freshness’ and ‘cleanliness’ as highly important. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthcare design; outpatients’ perspectives; waiting areas; patient-centred design (PCD); patient-centred care (PCC) healthcare design; outpatients’ perspectives; waiting areas; patient-centred design (PCD); patient-centred care (PCC)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Y.; Mourshed, M. Patients’ Perspectives on the Design of Hospital Outpatient Areas. Buildings 2017, 7, 117.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Buildings EISSN 2075-5309 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top