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Buildings 2017, 7(1), 5;

Estimation and Minimization of Embodied Carbon of Buildings: A Review

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Department of Structural Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manuel Duarte Pinheiro
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact of Buildings—Linking Impacts and Tools)
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Building and construction is responsible for up to 30% of annual global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, commonly reported in carbon equivalent unit. Carbon emissions are incurred in all stages of a building’s life cycle and are generally categorised into operating carbon and embodied carbon, each making varying contributions to the life cycle carbon depending on the building’s characteristics. With recent advances in reducing the operating carbon of buildings, the available literature indicates a clear shift in attention towards investigating strategies to minimize embodied carbon. However, minimizing the embodied carbon of buildings is challenging and requires evaluating the effects of embodied carbon reduction strategies on the emissions incurred in different life cycle phases, as well as the operating carbon of the building. In this paper, the available literature on strategies for reducing the embodied carbon of buildings, as well as methods for estimating the embodied carbon of buildings, is reviewed and the strengths and weaknesses of each method are highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon footprint; embodied carbon; greenhouse gas emissions; buildings carbon footprint; embodied carbon; greenhouse gas emissions; buildings

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Akbarnezhad, A.; Xiao, J. Estimation and Minimization of Embodied Carbon of Buildings: A Review. Buildings 2017, 7, 5.

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