1.1. The Passivhaus Standard and Literature Review
- Maximum specific space heat demand no more than 15 kWh/m2 of floor area;
- Overall energy demand (including space heating and cooling) no more than 120 kWh/m2;
- Airtightness no more than 0.6 h−1 at 50 Pa;
- For thermal comfort air temperatures in the living areas must not exceed 25 °C for more than 10% of the hours in a given year.
1.2. Future Climate, UK Passivhaus Dwellings and Overheating Risk
1.3. Definition of Thermal Discomfort (Overheating)
1.4. Aims and Objectives
- Selection of an existing Passivhaus dwelling in the UK
- Modelling and validation of the dwelling’s performance
- Conducting an initial pilot study
- Selecting weather data for simulation
- Defining the risk of overheating
- Selecting the effective façade geometry (tilt angle)
- Implementing the effective design to current and future weather conditions
- Assessing the impact of the introduced geometry to future performance of the Passivhaus
2.1. Reference Case
2.2. Modelling and Validation
|Annual heating demand (kWh/m2year)||13||9.3||9.1||13.5|
|Total Energy requirement including heating (kWh/m2year)||83||189||166||96|
|Airtightness (h−1 at 50 Pa)||0.2||0.198||0.2||0.2|
|Annual CO2 emission (kg CO2/m2year)||20.1||35.6||34.2||26.2|
|Frequency of overheating T > 25 °C, (%)||6%||34.9%||33.1%||17.5%|
|Measured (kWh)||Larch House|
|Total electricity (PV offset not included)||4495|
2.3. Pilot Study
|Element||U-Value (W/m2K)||Thickness (mm)|
|Ground floor slab||0.076||800|
|Windows||0.860||Triple glazing 13 mm argon-filled|
2.4. Weather Data for Simulation
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Overheating Risk for the Pilot Study Unit in Current and Future Climates in London
3.2. Effect for the Pilot Study Unit of the Inclined Façade on Heating and Cooling Demand
3.3. Overheating Frequency for the Pilot Study Unit
3.4. Implementing for the Pilot Study Unit the Effective Façade Geometry to Current and Future Conditions
4. Effect of the Inclined Façade on Daylighting
5. Discussion and Future Studies
Conflicts of Interest
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