2. Research Methodology
3. Literature Review
3.1. Construction Waste Definition
3.2. Definition of Construction Waste Minimisation
3.3. Causes of Construction Waste
|Lifecycle stages||Construction waste causes|
|Materials selection and specification-related|
|Contract Agreement Phase||Tender/contract document-related|
|Construction Phase||Material procurement|
|On site management and planning|
3.4. Complexities in Healthcare Project Life Cycles
3.4.1. Pre-Design Phase
3.4.2. Design Phase
3.4.3. Contract Agreement Phase
3.4.4. Construction Phase
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Preliminary Interview Results
4.1.1. Healthcare Complexities and Construction Waste Generation
|Complex Healthcare Features||Number of Respondents (of 25)||Level of Impact on Waste Generation (Code)|
|Complex building requirements for different shapes and sizes of rooms.||22||Significant|
|Complex mechanical and electrical services of the building.||20||Significant|
|Requirement for a large number of materials to satisfy quality standards.||15||Moderate|
|Complex nature of identifying all the functional requirements of the building at an early stage.||14||Moderate|
|Requirement for high density of materials per m2 of the building.||11||Moderate|
|Adaptable and flexible building-needs to fulfil future requirements.||10||Moderate|
|Continuous operation of hospital buildings in construction sites.||18||Significant|
|High wear and tear of the building throughout the lifetime.||5||Mild/no|
4.2. Questionnaire Survey Results
4.2.1. Impact of Healthcare Complexities on Construction Waste Causes and Origins
|Waste Causes||Mean Ratings|
|Functional Features||Operational Features|
|Pre-Design and Contract Agreement Phase|
|Clients’ lack of awareness of the construction process||3.5||3.8||2.1||1.2||1.2||3.0||1.1||1.1||1.0|
|Inefficiencies in communication and coordination||3.6||2.3||2.1||1.3||1.0||1.4||1.0||1.0||1.0|
|Lack of concentration on adaptability and flexibility by clients||3.4||3.2||1.4||1.4||1.1||3.2||1.0||3.4||1.0|
|Clients’ are not willing to change their requirements to standard sizes||4.0||2.1||1.9||1.9||1.4||2.2||1.0||1.7||1.0|
|Clients’ lack of knowledge about the materials available||2.6||1.7||1.5||2.1||1.9||2.3||1.0||1.2||1.0|
|Type of contract varying the responsibility for waste generation||1.4||1.7||1.5||1.1||1.1||1.1||1.0||1.4||1.3|
|Inconsistencies in the contract documents||2.4||1.1||2.5||1.3||1.1||1.1||1.0||1.0||1.0|
|Lack of knowledge of alternative materials||2.4||1.9||2.7||3.3||2.4||2.4||1.0||1.1||1.4|
|Incorrect drawing details||4.1||3.4||2.2||2.4||2.3||2.3||1.0||1.0||1.0|
|Complex designs generating a lot of off-cuts||4.3||3.7||1.8||3.1||3.7||1.7||1.0||1.3||1.0|
|Inefficiencies in communication and coordination||3.5||2.5||1.8||1.2||1.2||1.4||1.1||1.0||1.1|
|Delays in drawings causing time pressure during construction||2.4||1.6||2.8||1.3||1.3||1.3||1.0||1.0||1.0|
|Wrong selection of material in the lifecycle||1.7||1.9||1.8||2.3||2.3||3.0||1.3||2.3||2.3|
|Not thinking about the best ways to design||3.3||2.2||3.2||2.3||2.3||3.1||1.0||3.1||1.9|
|Non-standardisation of designs||3.5||3.6||2.2||1.9||1.5||1.5||1.0||1.7||1.0|
|Lack of awareness about waste generation in the construction process||3.3||1.2||1.2||1.1||1.6||2.2||1.4||1.4||1.4|
|Poor workmanship causing rework||4.0||3.4||1.4||3.6||3.9||3.0||3.4||1.0||1.1|
|Inadequate communication and coordination among parties||3.6||3.6||1.3||2.8||3.3||1.4||1.6||1.1||1.0|
|Lack of planning & organisation||3.5||1.8||2.7||1.3||1.3||3.1||4.2||1.3||1.0|
|Care and quality of trades used||1.9||1.7||1.1||2.0||2.8||1.4||3.3||1.4||3.5|
|Material handling and storage facilities on site||1.8||1.2||1.0||2.0||2.6||1.1||4.6||1.0||1.0|
Conflicts of Interest
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