# Experimental, Theoretical and Numerical Research Progress on Dynamic Behaviors of RC Structural Members

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Experimental Studies on Dynamic Behaviors of RC Structural Members

#### 2.1. Overview of Dynamic Loading Tests on Structural Members

#### 2.2. Measurement Methods for Dynamic Loading Test

#### 2.3. Summary of Experimental Findings

#### 2.4. Discussion on Dynamic Loading Tests

## 3. Theoretical Studies on Dynamic Behaviors of RC Structural Members

#### 3.1. Dynamic Modified Model at Material Level

#### 3.2. Dynamic Modified Model at Member Level

#### 3.3. Discussion on Dynamic Modified Models

## 4. Numerical Studies on Dynamic Behaviors of RC Structural Members

#### 4.1. Overview of Numerical Studies Considering Dynamic Effect

#### 4.2. Numerical Model for Simulating Structural Dynamic Behaviors

#### 4.2.1. Finite Element Model Considering Dynamic Effect

#### 4.2.2. Hysteretic Model Considering Dynamic Effect

#### 4.3. Discussion on Numerical Simulation Works

## 5. Concluding Remarks

- (1)
- According to the statistical results of available experiments on RC structural members under dynamic loading rates and seismic load, many tests have been performed on RC beams and column members under uniaxial loading schemes and static and dynamic loading rates. As compared with high loading rate tests, the experiments under median loading rates have been inadequate.
- (2)
- In several experimental studies, structural parameters were designed to be different in order to facilitate investigation of their influences on the dynamic behaviors of RC structural members. Most dynamic loading tests measured bearing capacity, displacement, strain, crack development and failure patterns. In addition, seismic damage and energy dissipation were indirectly acquired in a number of experiments.
- (3)
- Based on the results of available dynamic loading tests, the following conclusion was reached: with increased loading rates, the bearing capacity, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity of members were enhanced, while ductility might be reduced, and the degradation of stiffness and bearing capacity aggravated. As for failure mode, research findings have not led to consistency or consensus.
- (4)
- To reflect the influences of loading rates on the mechanical properties of RC materials, the DIF models established on the dynamic loading tests have been the most widely used. By summarizing the DIF models for concrete and reinforcing steel, it was determined that the mechanical behavior parameters for general dynamic modification included compressive strength, tensile strength, elastic modulus of concrete and the yielding strength and ultimate strength of reinforcing steel.
- (5)
- The mechanism of dynamic effects on RC structural members under seismic load could be explained by the strain rate-sensitivity of materials, the inertial effects of members and evolutions of micro-cracks. However, few research works have focused on this issue. Dynamic modified models for mechanical behavior parameters of RC structural members have been developed using finite element (FE) simulation or experimental results. These models considered the influences of loading rates and different structural parameters, and could be directly applied to estimate the dynamic behaviors of RC structural members.
- (6)
- Base on available FE software and self-compiled programs, various numerical methods have been undertaken by researchers to establish FE models to simulate the dynamic behaviors of RC structural members under different loading rates. Moreover, the dynamic hysteretic model established on the dynamic loading test data provided an effective approach to reasonably consider the influences of dynamic effects.
- (7)
- Through comparison with the test data, it was noted that more accurate results could be obtained using numerical models and methods that considered dynamic effects. In a few studies, cracking patterns, damage and failure modes of RC structural members were accurately captured through numerical simulations. Moreover, numerical studies could be applied to a broader range of structural parameters and loading rates, facilitating parametric analyses of the dynamic behaviors of RC structural members.

- (1)
- For dynamic loading tests, more research on RC structural members subjected to multidimensional dynamic loads should be carried out. Moreover, more tests should focus on the influence of dynamic effects on the deformation and damage mechanisms of structural members. Furthermore, in-depth studies are required to elucidate the influence of dynamic effects on structural members with different parameters and failure modes.
- (2)
- Among dynamic modified models, DIF models are the most commonly used to consider the impact of dynamic effects on RC structural members. Due to randomness in structural members and external dynamic loads, the capability of dynamic modification, at the material level, to reliably reflect dynamic effects at the member level should be verified. In addition, the suitability and accuracy of the models proposed at the member level need to be improved based on supplementary data test data and advanced theoretical methodologies.
- (3)
- For numerical simulation analysis, researchers should refine the available FE numerical models of RC structural members by incorporating shear and bond-slip behaviors with their consideration of dynamic effects. Moreover, more effort should be applied to improving model applicability and computational efficiency. Furthermore, the seismic damage evolution and failure mechanisms of RC structural members and structures must be deeply investigated, utilizing refined models and methods for numerical simulation.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**Damage phenomena of RC structures under real earthquake load. (

**a**) Damage to residential building; (

**b**) Damage to public building; (

**c**) Damage to industrial building; (

**d**) Damage to bridge.

**Figure 2.**Damage patterns in RC structural members after seismic hazards. (

**a**) Damage to joint elements; (

**b**) Damage to column elements; (

**c**) Damage to wall elements; (

**d**) Damage to beam elements.

**Figure 3.**Strain rate range for RC structure under different dynamic loadings [36].

**Figure 5.**Statistical diagram of dynamic increase factor (DIF) for concrete tensile and compressive strength with variation in strain rate [110].

**Figure 7.**Statistical diagram of dynamic increase factor (DIF) for bearing capacity of RC structural members with variations in strain rates.

**Figure 8.**Schematic plot of dynamic fiber model for RC beam-column members employing the user material subroutine. (

**a**) The proposed fiber beam-column element; (

**b**) Stress–strain curves of micro-concrete and iron wire at different strain rates [136].

**Figure 9.**Damage to RC shear wall obtained from test and simulations [17].

**Figure 10.**Comparisons between numerical and test results on cracking patterns for RC beam members under different loading rates [8].

**Figure 11.**Schematic plot of numerical model for RC column members considering the dynamic effect and bond-slip between concrete and steel. (

**a**) Sketch of fictitious spring between master and slave nodes in one-dimensional slide line model. (

**b**) Detached numerical model for RC columns [143].

**Figure 12.**Failure patterns of RC beams obtained from tests and simulations [146].

**Figure 13.**Comparison of experimental results and numerical simulations of mid-span deflection versus support reaction for RC beam [131].

**Figure 14.**Schematic plot of 2DOF model for RC structural members considering the dynamic effect and different failure modes. (

**a**) 2DOF numerical model; (

**b**) Combined dynamic flexural and shear resistance function [137].

**Figure 15.**Illustration of hysteretic model for RC structural members considering dynamic effects and different degradation modes. (

**a**) Static and dynamic skeleton models; (

**b**) Hysteretic rules [28].

**Table 1.**Summary of dynamic loading tests performed on RC structural members subjected to earthquake loading rates.

No. | Reference | Type | Number | Loading Rate | Loading Scheme |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Bertero et al. [41] | Beam | 6 | 0.1, 10/s | Mono, cycl |

2 | Kulkarni and Shah [42] | Beam | 14 | 0.0071–380 mm/s | Mono |

3 | White et al. [43] | Beam | 4 | 0.0167–36 mm/s | Mono, Cycl |

4 | Zhang et al. [44] | Beam | 36 | 1.05 × 10^{−5}, 1.25 × 10^{−3}/s | Mono |

5 | Marder et al. [13] | Beam | 17 | 100 Hz | Mono, Cycl |

6 | Yan [45] | Beam | / | 1 × 10^{−5}–1 × 10^{−3}/s | Cycl |

7 | Xiao et al. [46] | Beam | 5 | 0.1–10 mm/s | Mono |

8 | Li and Li [11] | Beam | 16 | 0.05–30 mm/s | Mono, Cycl |

9 | Zhou et al. [47] | Beam | 7 | 0.06 mm–66 mm/s | Mono |

10 | Otani et al. [48] | Beam | 8 | 0.1, 100 mm/s | Cycl |

11 | Guo [49] | Beam | 12 | 0, 2, 6 m/s | Mono |

12 | Wu et al. [50] | Beam | 3 | 87.89–135.8 Hz | Mono |

13 | Song et al. [5] | Beam | 5 | 3.5–6 m/s | Mono |

14 | Adhikary et al. [8,10,15] | Beam | 24 | 4 × 10^{−4}–2 m/s | Mono |

15 | Adhikary et al. [51] | Beam | 30 | 0–5.6 m/s | Mono |

16 | Zeng [52] | Beam | 6 | 10^{−2}/s–8.85 m/s | Mono |

17 | Feng et al. [53] | Beam | 10 | 3–7.7 m/s | Mono |

18 | Mutsuyoushi and Machida [54] | Beam | 14 | 0.1, 10, 100 cm/s | Mono, Cycl |

19 | Fukuda et al. [55] | Beam | 48 | 4 × 10^{−4}–2 m/s | Mono |

20 | Yuan and Yi [56] | Beam | 18 | 3.5 × 10^{−4}–1 m/s | Mono |

21 | Ye et al. [57] | Beam | 14 | 0.8 m/s | Mono |

22 | Fujikake [14] | Beam | 6 | 5 × 10^{−4} m/s, 2 m/s | Mono |

23 | Xiang et al. [58] | Column | 7 | / | Mono |

24 | Gutierrez et al. [59] | Column | 3 | 0.02–1 Hz | Cycl |

25 | Bousias et al. [60] | Column | 12 | / | Cycl, Biax |

26 | Li et al. [61] | Column | 30 | 0.000011–0.0167/s | Mono |

27 | Witarto et al. [6] | Column | 4 | 0.05–5 Hz | Cycl |

28 | Perry et al. [62] | Column | 4 | 0.7 × 10^{−4}–0.7 × 10^{−3}/s | Mono, Cycl |

29 | Yan [45] | Column | / | 10^{−5}–10^{−2}/s | Mono |

30 | Zou et al. [63] | Column | / | 10^{−5}–10^{−2}/s | Mono |

31 | Wang et al. [64] | Column | 30 | 0.1–50 mm/s | Mono, Cycl, Biax |

32 | Jiang [65] | Column | 12 | 0.1–20 mm/s | Mono, Cycl, Biax |

33 | Ghannoum et al. [35] | Column | 10 | 0.25–1061 mm/s | Cycl |

34 | Liu et al. [66] | Column | 10 | 0, 4.85, 6.86 m/s | Mono |

35 | Liu et al. [67] | Column | 13 | / | Mono |

36 | Lee et al. [68] | Column | 6 | / | Cycl |

37 | Wei et al. [69] | Column | 6 | 4.95–5.42 m/s | Mono |

38 | Fan et al. [70] | Column | 8 | 6.86, 5.42 m/s | Mono |

39 | Orozco and Ashford [71] | Column | 3 | 0.22–1 m/s | Cycl |

40 | Shah et al. [72] | Joint | 3 | 2.5 × 10^{−3}–1.0 Hz | Cycl |

41 | Chung and Shah [20] | Joint | 12 | 0.0025–2.0 Hz | Cycl |

42 | Gibson et al. [73] | Joint | 4 | 0–405 mm/s | Cycl |

43 | Pan [23] | Joint | 10 | 0.1–10 mm/s | Cycl |

44 | Fan et al. [74] | Joint | 3 | 0.4–40 mm/s | Cycl |

45 | Wang et al. [75] | Joint | 8 | 0.4–40 mm/s | Cycl |

46 | Zhang [17] | Shear wall | 7 | 10^{−5}–10^{−3}/s | Cycl |

47 | Xu et al. [16] | Shear wall | 2 | 1–10 mm/s | Cycl |

48 | Chiu et al. [76] | Infill wall | 6 | 0–0.4 g | Cycl |

49 | Yilmaz et al. [77] | Slab | 9 | 4.43, 4.95, 5.42 m/s | Mono |

Model | Range of Dynamic Strain Rate | Quasi-Static Strain Rate | Type of Formula | Modified Parameters |
---|---|---|---|---|

CEB model [29] | $3.0\times {10}^{-5}/\mathrm{s}~300/\mathrm{s}$ | $\begin{array}{l}3.0\times {10}^{-5}/\mathrm{s}\left(\mathrm{compression}\right)\\ 3.0\times {10}^{-6}/\mathrm{s}\left(\mathrm{tension}\right)\end{array}$ | Exponential | ${f}_{cd}$${E}_{cd}$ ${\epsilon}_{cfd}$ ${f}_{td}$ ${E}_{td}$ |

Malvar model [122] | ${10}^{-6}/\mathrm{s}~160/\mathrm{s}$ | $1.0\times {10}^{-6}/\mathrm{s}$ | Exponential | ${f}_{td}$ |

Tedesco and Ross model [123] | ${10}^{-7}/\mathrm{s}~1{0}^{2}/\mathrm{s}$ | ${10}^{-7}/\mathrm{s}$ | Linear logarithmic | ${f}_{cd}$${f}_{td}$ |

Yan model [89] | ${10}^{-5}/\mathrm{s}~1{0}^{-2}/\mathrm{s}$ | ${10}^{-5}/\mathrm{s}$ | Linear logarithmic | ${f}_{cd}$${E}_{cd}$ ${f}_{td}$ ${E}_{td}$. |

Xiao and Zhang model [124] | ${10}^{-5}/\mathrm{s}~1{0}^{-1}/\mathrm{s}$ | ${10}^{-5}/\mathrm{s}$ | Linear logarithmic | ${f}_{cd}$${\epsilon}_{cfd}$ |

Li model [31] | ${10}^{-5}/\mathrm{s}~1{0}^{-2}/\mathrm{s}$ | ${10}^{-5}/\mathrm{s}$ | Linear logarithmic | ${f}_{cd}$ |

Model | Range of Dynamic Strain Rate | Quasi-Static Strain Rate | Type of Formula | Modified Parameters |
---|---|---|---|---|

CEB model [29] | $5.0\times {10}^{-5}/\mathrm{s}~10/\mathrm{s}$ | $5.0\times {10}^{-5}/\mathrm{s}$ | Linear logarithmic | ${f}_{yd}$. ${f}_{ud}$${f}_{nd}$ |

Malvar model [122] | ${10}^{-4}/\mathrm{s}~10/\mathrm{s}$ | $3.0\times {10}^{-4}/\mathrm{s}$ | Exponential | ${f}_{yd}$${f}_{ud}$ |

Lin Feng model [30] | $<2/\mathrm{s}$ | $3.0\times {10}^{-4}/\mathrm{s}$ | Linear logarithmic | ${f}_{yd}$${f}_{ud}$ |

Li and Li model [103] | $2.5\times {10}^{-4}/\mathrm{s}~0.1/\mathrm{s}$ | $2.5\times 1{0}^{-4}/\mathrm{s}$ ${10}^{-5}/\mathrm{s}$ | Linear logarithmic | ${f}_{yd}$${f}_{ud}$${\epsilon}_{hd}$ |

Reference | Equations of Dynamic Modified Model | Model Type |
---|---|---|

Adhikary et al. [8] | Maximum resistance of RC regular beams (1) With transverse reinforcements $DIF=\left[1.89-0.067{\rho}_{g}-0.42{\rho}_{v}-0.14(a/d)\right]{e}^{\left[-0.35-{0.052}_{{\rho}_{g}}+{0.179}_{{\rho}_{v}}+0.18(a/d)\right]}{}^{\delta}$ (2) Without transverse reinforcements $DIF=\left[0.004{\rho}_{g}+0.136(a/d)-0.34\right]{\mathrm{log}}_{e}\delta +\left[{0.009}_{{\rho}_{g}}+0.41(a/d)+0.157\right]$ | FE simulation results-based (Deterministic) |

Adhikary et al. [15] | Maximum resistance of RC deep beams (1) With transverse reinforcements $DIF=\left[1.25-0.04{\rho}_{g}-0.13{\rho}_{v}+0.05(\frac{a}{d})\right]{e}^{\left[0.22-0.03{\rho}_{g}-0.17{\rho}_{v}+0.03(a/d)\right]\delta}$ (2) without transverse reinforcements $DIF=\left[0.45+0.09+0.48(\frac{a}{d})\right]{e}^{\left[0.30-0.05{\rho}_{g}-0.05(a/d)\right]\delta}$ | FE simulation results-based (Deterministic) |

Wang [64] | Ultimate bearing capacity of RC columns (1) Different axial load ratio $DIF=1.0+{c}_{n}\mathrm{lg}\frac{{\dot{\epsilon}}_{d}}{{\dot{\epsilon}}_{s}}$ ${c}_{n}=0.1426{n}^{2}-0.0614n+0.0337$ | FE simulation results-based (Deterministic) |

(2) Different concrete strength conditions $DIF=1.0+{c}_{f}\mathrm{lg}\frac{{\dot{\epsilon}}_{d}}{{\dot{\epsilon}}_{s}}$ ${c}_{f}=1\times {10}^{-4}{f}_{c}^{2}-0.068{f}_{c}+0.153$ | ||

(3) Different longitudinal reinforcement ratios $DIF=1.0+{c}_{\rho}\mathrm{lg}\frac{{\dot{\epsilon}}_{d}}{{\dot{\epsilon}}_{s}}$ ${c}_{\rho}=0.0129{\rho}^{2}-0.0643\rho +0.1182$ | ||

Li et al. [33] | Mechanical behavior parameters of RC columns (including yielding and ultimate bearing capacity, effective stiffness and ductility coefficient) $\begin{array}{c}DM{C}_{j}\left(\mathbf{x},\mathbf{\Theta}\right)={\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{6}{\theta}_{i}{h}_{i}\left(\mathbf{x}\right)}+\sigma \epsilon \hfill \\ \hfill ={\theta}_{1}{f}_{y}/{f}_{c}^{\prime}+{\theta}_{2}{n}_{0}+{\theta}_{3}\lambda +{\theta}_{4}{\rho}_{l}+{\theta}_{5}{\rho}_{s}+{\theta}_{6}\mathrm{lg}\left({\dot{\epsilon}}_{d}/{\dot{\epsilon}}_{0}\right)+\sigma \epsilon \end{array}$ | Experimental date-based (Probabilistic) |

Fan [74] | Shear bearing capacity of RC joints $DIF=0.99679+0.1536n+0.02326\mathrm{lg}\frac{\dot{\epsilon}}{{\dot{\epsilon}}_{0}}$ | Experimental date-based (Deterministic) |

Yan [45] | Elasticity modulus of RC beams (1) With transverse reinforcements $\frac{{E}_{d}}{{E}_{s}}=1.3247{(\dot{\epsilon})}^{0.027}$ (2) Without transverse reinforcements $\frac{{E}_{d}}{{E}_{s}}=1.2486{(\dot{\epsilon})}^{0.0213}$ | Experimental date-based (Deterministic) |

Song [5] | Dynamic increase factor in flexural strength of RC column $DI{F}_{m}\approx DI{F}_{s}\times \frac{1-\frac{1}{2}\frac{{\sigma}_{y}}{{f}_{c}}\frac{DI{F}_{s}}{DI{F}_{c}}{\rho}_{s}+\frac{1}{2}\frac{{\sigma}_{y}^{\prime}}{{f}_{c}}{\rho}_{s}^{\prime}-\eta}{1-\frac{1}{2}\frac{{\sigma}_{y}}{{f}_{c}}{\rho}_{s}+\frac{1}{2}\frac{{\sigma}_{y}^{\prime}}{{f}_{c}}{\rho}_{s}^{\prime}-\eta}$ | FE simulation results-based (Deterministic) |

Rouchette et al. [34] | Simplified formula for mid-span deflection of RC beams under impact loading $Di=Ds\times (1+\frac{1.77E+18}{{c}^{2}}{V}^{2})$ | FE simulation results-based (Deterministic) |

Reference | Type | Elements | Parameter | Effectiveness |
---|---|---|---|---|

Wang [64] | Column | Solid element and truss element | Strain rates | Correlation between strain and strength under unidirectional dynamic loading test. |

Wang [26] | Column | Three-dimensional fiber beam and birth–death element | Loading scheme Strain rate | User material subroutine for RC structural members considering the strain rate effect of materials. |

Liu and Li [27] | Column | Three-dimensional fiber beam and birth–death element | Strain rates Damage | The dynamic behaviors of RC beams and column members. |

Adhikary et al. [10] | Beam | Solid and beam element | Strain rates Inertia Longitudinal reinforcing ratio Stirrup ratio Shear span ratio Dynamic shear resistance | The dynamic shear resistance of RC deep beams was found to increase as the loading rates were increased. |

Zhao et al. [139] | Beam | Solid and Hughes–Liu beam elements | Strain rates Beam span Shear Impact mass Reinforcement ratio Sectional dimension | The resistance characteristics of localized shear failure of RC beam members subjected to varying loading rates. |

Wang [64] | Column | Fiber beam-column element with plastic hinges | Strain rates Shear Bond-slip Axial compression ratio Longitudinal reinforcement ratio Shear span ratio Concrete strength | Reflected the bearing capacity and stiffness degradation of structural members under different loading rates. |

Shi et al. [143] | Column | One-dimensional slide line model | Strain rates Shear Slip Damage | The blast-induced dynamic responses of RC column members considering the bond shear modulus, maximum elastic slip strain and damage curve exponential coefficient. |

Rouchette et al. [34] | Beam | 3-D spar element, solid element, bond-link element | Strain rates Corroded steel bar Flexural Bond-slip Impact mass Beam geometry Concrete strength Reinforcement ratio The solicitation force | Simulated the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams considering the bond between concrete and steel bar under impact loading. The accuracy of the FE numerical model could be improved, as compared with the no-bond-slip model. |

Valipour et al. [131] | Beam | Fiber element | Strain rates Shear Impact mass | Dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete beams subjected to high strain rate loads considering the possible failure of shear. |

Guner and Vecchio [144] | Shear wall | Secant-stiffness-based finite-element algorithm | Strain rates Shear | A simplified method for the dynamic analyses of shear-critical RC frame members under impact and seismic load. The influences of dynamic effects and the shear effect were incorporated based on the DIF models and the rotating smeared crack approach. |

Jia et al. [137] | Beam | 2DOF model | Strain rates Flexural Shear Impact mass Reinforcement ratio Concrete strength | Predicted the possible failure modes (i.e., the punching shear, shear, flexure, flexure-shear and instability) of RC structural members subjected to low-velocity impact load. |

Adhikary et al. [15] | Beam | Hughes–Liu beam element and solid element | Strain rates Shear Bond-slip Impact mass | The relationship between failure mode and impact mass of RC beam members under impact load. |

Li et al. [145] | Beam | Hughes–Liu beam element with 2 × 2 Gauss quadrature | Strain rates Impact energy Inclination angle of drop weight Concrete strength | Investigated the dynamic behavior of beams subjected to impact loading rates. The influences of dynamic effects and excessive distortion due to large deformations under impact loads were incorporated, based on the DIF models and a method to automatically remove the distorted elements, based on predefined criteria. |

Yang [138] | Shear wall | Solid and truss element | Strain rates Shear span ratio Reinforcement ratio Failure mode | Mechanical property and failure mode subjected to dynamic loading rates. |

Song and Zhang [18] | Shear wall | Solid and truss element | Strain rates Shear span ratio Axial compression ratio | The response of RC shear wall with different shear span ratios and axial compression ratios under quasi-static load and dynamic load with high strain rate. |

Degradation Effect Factors | Relevant Studies | |
---|---|---|

Single factor | - Stiffness degradation
| Clough [147], Takeda [148], Wen [151], Takayanagi and Schnobrich [152], Saatcioglu et al. [153], Xu [154], Qu and Ye [155], |

- Pinching effect
| Ambrisi and Filippou [156] | |

Multiple factor | - Stiffness degradation
- Strength degradation
| Gu et al. [157], Zheng et al. [158], Zheng et al. [159], Erberik [160], Wang et al. [161] |

- Stiffness degradation
- Strength degradation
- Pinching effect
| Park and Ang [150], Ozcebeand Saatcioglu [149], Dowell et al. [162], Mostaghel and Byrd [163], Yan et al. [164], Wang et al. [165], Yu et al. [166], Sezen and Chowdhury [167], Leborgne and Ghannoum [168], Chao and Loh [169], Guo and Yang [170], Yu et al. [171], Cai et al. [172], Zhao and Dun [173], Huang et al. [174] | |

- Stiffness degradation
- Strength degradation
- Negative stiffen
- Pinching effect
| Song and Pincheira [175], Ibarra et al. [176], Guo and Long [177], Li [33] |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, R.; Gao, M.; Li, H.; Li, C.; Wang, D.
Experimental, Theoretical and Numerical Research Progress on Dynamic Behaviors of RC Structural Members. *Buildings* **2023**, *13*, 1359.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051359

**AMA Style**

Li R, Gao M, Li H, Li C, Wang D.
Experimental, Theoretical and Numerical Research Progress on Dynamic Behaviors of RC Structural Members. *Buildings*. 2023; 13(5):1359.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051359

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Rouhan, Mao Gao, Hongnan Li, Chao Li, and Debin Wang.
2023. "Experimental, Theoretical and Numerical Research Progress on Dynamic Behaviors of RC Structural Members" *Buildings* 13, no. 5: 1359.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051359