Quantitative Assessment of Strengthening Strategies and Design Recommendations for the Repair of CorrosionDamaged Reinforced Concrete Members
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. Corrosion Mechanism and Damage in RC Members
2.1. CarbonationInduced Corrosion
2.2. ChlorideInduced Corrosion
2.3. Impact of Corrosion Process in Natural Environments
3. Methods of Inducing Corrosion in RC Structures
3.1. Accelerated Corrosion Process
3.2. ACE and ECE Corrosion Processes
3.3. Corrosion Initiation by Chloride Spraying
3.4. PotentioStatic Accelerated MacroCell Corrosion Technique
3.5. Freeze–Thaw Cycle Process and Environmental Chambers
4. Effects of Different Corrosion Techniques and Design Parameters on the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Specimens
4.1. Design Parameters Affecting the Corrosion of RC Members
4.2. Assessment of Previous Equation from Different Design Codes and Studies
5. Repair Methods for CorrosionDamaged Reinforced Concrete Members
5.1. Steel Jacketing
5.2. FiberReinforced Polymer Composites
Results and Failure Mode Observations
5.3. Ferrocement Technique
5.4. Patch Repair Technique
5.5. FabricReinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM)
5.6. Engineered Cementitious Composites
5.7. Mechanically Fastened Composites
5.8. Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) Repair Technique
5.9. Performance Comparison of Strengthening Techniques for Corroded RC Members
6. Design Recommendations and Conclusions
6.1. Design Recommendations for Further Investigations
 Among the different corrosioninducing techniques, the accelerated corrosion process (ACP) could yield the desired corrosion levels with a shorter time period and a low initial setup cost. To achieve a low or medium corrosion level (i.e., mass loss < 10%), three critical design parameters—current density, time and concentration of NaCl—should be set as 60 μA/cm^{2}, 30 days and 3.5%, respectively. In order to achieve high levels of corrosion damage in reinforced concrete sections, a minimum current density of 200 μA/cm^{2} should be maintained. In addition, the duration of the corrosion induction and the concentration of NaCl solution play key roles and should be maintained at the minimum values of 30 days and 3.5%, respectively;
 For the strengthening of low or moderately damaged RC members, the combined use of a patch repair system and fiberreinforced polymer composite reinforcement ($\mathsf{\rho}$_{l} = 1.5%) may be helpful in completely restoring strength and ductility. The use of single strengthening systems, such as FRCM or ECCs, can be highly effective for members with moderate damage levels. However, the selection of fibers plays a key role. Carbon or PBObased FRCMs can be highly effective and achieve 100% enhancements in loadcarrying capacity. However, their application in the field may be limited by their high initial cost;
 The use of a hybrid ECC or FRCM system is essential to restore the lost performance of heavily corroded RC members where the total mass loss is more than 15%. In such a scenario, the minimum thickness of the ECC layer to be provided is 25–30 mm beyond the concrete cover, and the minimum longitudinal reinforcement ratio is 1.0%;
 For both individual and hybrid strengthening schemes, the use of dowel connections or FRP anchors to bond the existing strata and new stratum can help in yielding the desired performance enhancements under shear or combined shear and flexure load combinations.
6.2. Summary and Conclusions
 Among the various corrosioninducing methods, the accelerated corrosion method using NaCl solutions of 3%, 3.5% and 5% was found to be more extensively used by researchers. Other techniques for inducing corrosion were rarely selected due to the cost and easiness of developing corrosion similar to that from realtime observations;
 Among the strengthening methods discussed, the FRP and ECC methods were the most extensively used strengthening techniques for corrosiondamaged RC members, and they were found to be able to restore materials’ original capacity. A few researchers utilized steel jacketing and mechanically fastened systems. However, the durability of members located in harsh environmental conditions is a point in question;
 For corroded RC members subjected to dynamic seismic loading, the use of ECC and FRP strengthening resulted in better energy dissipation capacities and lateral strength enhancement compared to other techniques. Moreover, a combination of CFRP wraps and steel jacketing resulted in enhancement of the strength and ductility;
 The hybrid strengthening scheme using FRPECCs and FRCM with Uwrapping enhanced flexural performance to a significant level compared to single strengthening techniques;
 Though the effects of different corrosionstrengthening procedures are wellestablished, their long term performance and effectiveness are points of concern or have not been studied extensively. Hence, it is important to understand the durability properties of different strengthening systems and this will be the aim of further investigations.
Author Contributions
Funding
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Nomenclature
A  exposed specimen area, cm^{2} 
A_{0} (x)  initial crosssectional area along the bar length x, documented before beam casting 
A_{fin} (x)  final crosssectional area along the bar length x, evaluated after the structural failure test 
A_{m}  atomic mass (for iron, 55.85 g) 
α  proposed correction/calibration factor for Faraday’s law (or) target corrosion ratio 
C_{Faraday}  Faraday’s constant (96485 C/mol) 
d  reinforcing steel bar diameter 
d_{b}  diameter of reinforcing bar 
D_{i}^{c}  original diameter of the number itype rebar before corrosion testing 
ρ  density of iron (7.85 g/cm^{3}) 
ρ_{w}  corrosion rate 
ΔA_{yn} (x)  decrease in crosssection area caused by yielding and necking of the tensile bar 
Ew  equivalent weight for pure metals 
F  Faraday’s constant (96,500 C/mol) 
γ  rebar radius 
i  current density 
icor  corrosion current density, μA/cm^{2} 
I  average current (A) applied over time increment Dt (s) 
I_{cor}  total anodic current, μA 
K_{1}  3.27 × 10^{−3}, mm g/μA cm yr 
K_{2}  8.954 × 10^{−3} g cm^{2}/μA m^{2}d 
l  corrosion length in steel bar 
L  total length of reinforcements connected in series 
Li  length of each rebar unit (in the present study, the unit length of each number 6 and number 4 rebar section was equal to 340 cm, while the unit length of the number 3 stirrup was 2 cm × 25 cm) 
m  rebar mass loss 
M  molar mass of iron (56 g/mol) 
m_{0} and l_{0}  initial mass and length of the noncorroded stirrups 
m_{1}  initial mass of bar per unit length 
m_{1} and l_{1}  final mass and length of the corroded stirrups 
m_{2}  mass of bar after the corrosion process 
m_{loss}  targeted mass loss (grams) 
MR  g/m^{2}d 
m_{Specimen}  molar mass of the reinforcement bar (55.8 mol) 
m_{t}  mass loss in corroded reinforcement at target corrosion ratios (g) 
µ_{avg}  actual average corrosion level 
n  number of bars (or) number of electrons required to oxidize an atom of the element in the corrosion process 
Ni  total number of number itype rebar units (N6 = 2, N4 = 2, N3 = 34 in the present study) 
ηs  percent mass loss in the design 
r  radius of the steel bars (in mm) 
$\mathsf{\rho}$_{l}  ratio of longitudinal steel reinforcement 
R  corrosion rate 
S  total surface area of the reinforcement material within a specimen 
t  corrosion duration (in sec) (or) time elapsed in hours after casting 
W  atomic weight of the element 
w(g)  accumulated steel loss (g) 
z  number of electrons released when one iron atom is converted into an iron ion (equal to 2) 
Z  valence in the corrosion reaction (+2) 
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Reference Study  Formulae Used for Predicting the Corrosion Process 

ASTMG102−89 [109] 

Zhou et al. [16]  Calculation of corrosion density
$$\mathrm{i}=\frac{1}{\mathrm{n}\mathsf{\pi}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{l}}$$
$$\mathsf{\alpha}=\frac{\mathrm{M}\mathrm{i}\mathrm{t}}{\mathrm{F}\mathsf{\alpha}\mathsf{\rho}}$$
$${\mathsf{\mu}}_{\mathrm{a}\mathrm{v}\mathrm{g}}=\frac{\frac{{\mathsf{\mu}}_{\mathrm{l}\mathrm{o}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{s}}}{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{i}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{l}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{g}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{h}\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{h}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{r}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{b}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{r}}}{\frac{{\mathsf{\mu}}_{\mathrm{b}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{r}}}{\mathrm{t}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{i}\mathrm{l}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{b}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{r}\mathrm{l}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{g}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{h}}}$$

Yang et al. [22]  Calculation of maximum corrosion level
$${\mathsf{\mu}}_{\mathrm{max}}=\frac{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{x}\left(\mathrm{A}0\right(\mathrm{x})\mathrm{A}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{i}\mathrm{n}(\mathrm{x})\Delta \mathrm{A}\mathrm{y}\mathrm{n}(\mathrm{x})}{\mathrm{A}0\left(\mathrm{x}\right)}$$

Hou et al. [42]  Calculation of actual corrosion ratio
$$\mathsf{\rho}=\frac{\Delta \mathrm{m}}{{\mathrm{m}}_{0}}$$
$$\mathrm{t}=\frac{\mathrm{z}\mathrm{F}{\Delta \mathrm{m}}_{\mathrm{t}}}{\mathrm{M}\mathrm{i}\mathrm{S}}$$

Zheng et al. [48]  Calculation of corrosion duration according to Faraday’s law
$$\mathrm{t}=\frac{\mathrm{Z}\mathrm{F}\xb7\mathrm{r}\xb7\mathsf{\rho}{\mathsf{\eta}}_{\mathrm{s}}}{2\mathrm{M}\xb7\mathrm{i}}$$
$$\mathsf{\eta}=\left(\frac{\frac{{\mathrm{m}}_{0}}{{\mathrm{l}}_{0}}\frac{{\mathrm{m}}_{1}}{{\mathrm{l}}_{1}}}{\frac{{\mathrm{m}}_{0}}{{\mathrm{l}}_{0}}}\right)\times 100$$

Fakhri et al. [100]  Faraday’s law of electrolysis
$$\mathrm{m}=\frac{\mathrm{A}}{\mathrm{Z}\xb7\mathrm{F}}{\int}_{0}^{\mathrm{t}}\mathrm{i}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{t}$$

Joshi et al. [110] Jia et al. [111] Siad et al. [112] Zhang et al. [113] Daneshvar et al. [114]  Calculation of mass loss using Faraday’s law
$$\Delta \mathrm{m}=\mathrm{M}\mathrm{I}\mathrm{t}/\mathrm{z}\mathrm{F}$$
$$\mathsf{\rho}=\frac{{\mathrm{M}}_{1}{\mathrm{M}}_{2}}{{\mathrm{M}}_{1}}\times 100\%$$

Alwash et al. [115]  Calculation of mass loss using Faraday’s law
$${\mathrm{M}}^{\mathrm{t}\mathrm{h}}=\frac{\left(\mathrm{W}\times {\mathrm{I}}_{\mathrm{a}\mathrm{p}\mathrm{p}}\times \mathrm{T}\right)}{\mathrm{F}}$$
$${\mathrm{M}}_{\mathrm{a}\mathrm{c}}=\frac{{\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{i}}{\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{f}}}{\mathsf{\pi}\times \mathrm{D}\times \mathrm{L}}$$
$$\mathsf{\rho}=\frac{{\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{i}}{\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{f}}}{{\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{i}}}\times 100$$
$${\mathrm{I}}_{\mathrm{a}\mathrm{p}\mathrm{p}.}={\mathrm{I}}_{\mathrm{corr}.\text{}}=\frac{\mathsf{\rho}\times {\mathrm{w}}_{\mathrm{i}}\times \mathrm{F}}{100\times \mathsf{\pi}\times \mathrm{D}\times \mathrm{L}\times \mathrm{W}\times \mathrm{T}}$$

Wang et al. [116]  Calculation of natural corrosion power
$$\mathrm{N}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{P}=\mathrm{R}\times \mathrm{t}\times \mathrm{S}$$

Calculation of total volume deduction
$$\Delta \mathrm{V}=\frac{\mathrm{I}\xb7\mathrm{t}\xb7\mathrm{M}}{\mathrm{n}\xb7\mathrm{F}\xb7\mathsf{\rho}}$$
 
Calculation of diameter size of corroded bar
$${\mathrm{D}}_{\mathrm{i}}^{\mathrm{C}}=\sqrt{{\left({\mathrm{D}}_{\mathrm{i}}^{0}\right)}^{2}\frac{\Delta {\mathrm{V}}_{\mathrm{i}}\xb74}{\mathsf{\pi}\xb7{\mathrm{N}}_{\mathrm{i}}\xb7{\mathrm{L}}_{\mathrm{i}}}}$$
 
Rajput et al. [117]  Calculation of corrosion duration using modified Faraday’s law
$$\mathrm{t}(\mathrm{s}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{c})=\frac{\mathsf{\alpha}\xb7{\mathrm{m}}_{\mathrm{loss}\text{}}\xb7{\mathrm{n}}_{\mathrm{specimen}\text{}}\xb7{\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{Faraday}\text{}}}{\mathrm{C}\mathrm{u}\mathrm{r}\mathrm{r}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{t}\left(\mathrm{A}\right)\xb7{\mathrm{M}}_{\mathrm{Specimen}\text{}}}$$

Calculation of λ factor (if the mass loss is less than the theoretical mass loss)
$$\mathsf{\lambda}=\frac{\mathrm{Theoretical}\text{}\mathrm{mass}\text{}\mathrm{loss}}{\mathrm{Actual}\text{}\mathrm{mass}\text{}\mathrm{loss}}$$
 
Pantazopoulou et al. [118]  Calculation of weight loss using Faraday’s law
$$\Delta \mathrm{W}\left(\mathrm{g}\right)=\frac{\mathrm{I}\xb7\mathrm{t}\xb7{\mathrm{A}}_{\mathrm{m}}}{\mathrm{z}\xb7\mathrm{F}}$$

Shen et al. [119]  Calculation of mass loss in reinforcement using mass corrosion rate ρ_{w}
$$\Delta \mathrm{m}=\frac{\mathsf{\pi}}{4}{\mathrm{d}}_{\mathrm{b}}^{2}\mathrm{L}\mathsf{\rho}{\mathsf{\rho}}_{\mathrm{w}}$$

Calculation of corrosion initiation
$$\mathrm{t}=\frac{\mathsf{\pi}{\mathrm{d}}_{\mathrm{b}}^{2}\mathrm{L}\mathsf{\rho}{\mathsf{\rho}}_{\mathrm{w}}\mathrm{z}\mathrm{F}}{4\mathrm{M}\mathrm{I}}$$

Reference  Specimen and Load Type  Corrosion Type  Repair Method  Intensity of Damage  Enhancement Observed 

Kaya et al. [12]  Steel columns under axial compression load  Different patterns of simulated corrosion  Concretefilled GFRP jacket  Global buckling, delamination of GFRP  Use of two and three layers of GFRP enhanced loadcarrying capacity by 9% and 26% 
Zhou et al. [16]  Circular RC column under seismic loading  Impressed current method (3.5% NaCl)  LRS–FRP wrap  Several horizontal cracks, larger flexural deformation in the plastic hinge zone  1. The energy dissipation capacity increased by 371.8% and 1040% for 0.2 and 0.4% P_{u} 2. Shift in failure mode from brittle shearcompression failure to ductile flexure mode 
Haddad et al. [17]  RC beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (3.0% NaCl)  CFRP sheets at different configurations with CFRP anchors  Concrete and spalling of cover concrete  Increases in loadcarrying capacity by 37% and flexural stiffness by 54% 
Chotickai et al. [18]  RC column under eccentric compression  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  CFRP wrapping  Extensive cracking on the tension face and on the compression face  Increase in loadcarrying capacity by 20% 
Jayaprakash et al. [20]  RC column under axial and eccentric loading  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  Hybrid combination of CFRP and GFRP strengthening systems  Crushing of concrete, rupture of FRP on tension face and buckling of FRP on the compression face 

Tigeli et al. [21]  RC beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  Cementitious patch repair and CFRP laminates  Delamination of CFRP laminates  1. Increase in strength by 25% for patch repair technique and 50% for CFRP technique 2. Increase in stiffness by 5% for patch repair technique 
Yang et al. [22]  RC beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Salted concrete with 3% NaCl (submerged to midspan)  Hybrid FRP strengthening + CFRP Ujackets  Rupture of the GFRP laminate and anchorage failure in CFRP jackets  Increase in flexural strength by 57%, 165% and 417% for CFRP Ujackets, GFRP laminates and hybrid strengthening, respectively. 
Kalyoncuoglu et al. [23]  Substandard RC column under combined axial and lateral cyclic loading  Externally spraying with calcium chloride  Two plies of CFRP wrapping  CFRP rupture and cover concrete spalling  Increase in energy dissipation capacity up to 3% (drift ratio) 
Badawi et al. [25]  RC beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Salted concrete with 2.25% NaCl and 100% humidity  CFRP wrapping  Rupture of CFRP composites  Increase in flexural yield load by 19% and ultimate capacity by 50% 
Li et al. [26]  RC column subjected to monotonic axial compression test  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  Large rupture strain CFRP strengthening  Buckling of rebar and concrete deterioration in highly corroded specimens  Energy absorption capacity for LRSFRP was significantly improved when compared with only CFRP strengthening 
Karimipour et al. [27]  RC square column under cyclic loading  Salted concrete with 4% NaCl  GFRP and CFRP jacketing  Fabric separation, debonding and tearing of FRP fabric  Increase in ductility by 30% and 60% for CFRP and GFRP fabricstrengthened specimens 
DoDai et al. [30]  RC beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (4.5% concentric H_{2}SO_{4})  EBCFRP laminates, EBBFRP laminates and CFRP Uwrap anchors  FRP debonding, rupture of CFRP and BFRP  CFRP anchorage system enhanced strength by 87.6%–104.8% and decreased ductility index by 4.5%–28.9% 
Liu et al. [36]  Continuous RC beams subjected to fatigue test  Not specified  Polarized carbon FRCM plate under ICCPSS  Fracture of longitudinal bar, crushing of concrete  Decrease in strength due to degradation of carbon FRCM plate due to polarization 
Elghazy et al. [37]  RC Beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  PBOFRCM and carbon FRCM strengthening  FRCM delamination, fabric slippage, CFRP laminate rupture, matrix cracking and fabric separation  PBOFRCM increased ultimate loadcarrying capacity and ductility, while CFRCM showed better postyielding stiffness 
Elghazy et al. [40]  RC beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Potentiostatic technique Salted concrete with 5% salt solution  FRCM composite  Matrix cracking, fiber delamination, concrete crushing, PBO fabric debonding from matrix  Increase in strength by 65% 
Elghazy et al. [41]  RC Beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  FRCM composites (PBO and carbon)  Delamination of PBOFRCM and concrete crushing  1. Increases in strength for PBOFRCM and CFRCM by 107–129% and 155%, respectively 2. Increase in fatigue life by 38–377% 
Jayasree et al. [44]  RC beams subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (4% NaCl)  Ferrocement with two layers of wire mesh  Crushing and spalling of concrete cover  Increase in ultimate loadcarrying capacity for low and medium corrosion rates 
Hu et al. [50]  RC beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  Hybrid CFRPECC scheme  Microcracks in ECC layer and rupture of CFRP wrap  Increases in strength of 28.0%, 24.0% and 19.0% for the corrosion levels of 3.7%, 8.3% and 13.2% 
Hou et al. [63]  RC beams subjected to fourpoint bending test  Postcorrosion  Ultrahightoughness cementitious composites (UHTCCs)  Splitting cracks near free end, diagonal cracks at beam web  Decrease in bond strength by 12–13.5% for postcorrosion specimens and by 13.5–18% for precorrosion specimens 
Su et al. [68]  Continuous RC beam subjected to fivepoint bending test  Impressed current method with two dry–wet cycles per week  Two layers of carbon fiber mesh  Concrete crushing, interfacial separation of CFRP and debonding at tension zone  Increase in yield load by 10.5%–52.3% compared to the reference beam 
Joshi et al. [110]  Short RC columns under axial loading  Impressed current method (3.5% NaCl)  Ferrocement and GFRP wrapping  Failure of ferrocement jacket, rupture of CFRP sheet  Increase in strength by 77% for 3.51% corrosion level and 59% for 5.9% corrosion level. 
Jia et al. [111]  RC bridge column under seismic loads  Impressed current method (3.5% NaCl)  CFRP jacketing  Cover concrete crushing, extensive crack formation  1. CFRP jacketing did not restore the strength but significantly improved the ductility 
Siad et al. [112]  RC beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  CFRP wrapping  Debonding of CFRP layers  Increase in strength when compared to the unstrengthened beam 
Zhang et al. [113]  Recycled aggregate concrete beams subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  CFRP wrapping  Debonding of CFRP, concrete crushing, diagonal cracks  Corrosiondamaged and strengthened specimen enhanced maximum deflection by 30% compared to strengthened uncorroded specimen 
Daneshvar et al. [114]  RC slab under multiimpact loading  Impressed current method (3.5% NaCl)  Externally bonded BFRP  Debonding of CFRP sheets and severe crack formation  Decrease in energy absorption capacity by 77% for 15% corrosion level and 89% for 30% corrosion level 
Alwash et al. [115]  RC beams and columns under combined axial and bending loads  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  Patch repair technique  Extensive concrete crushing and rupture  Increases in ductility by 19% and 42% for low and high corrosion levels, respectively Strength not restored for either corrosion level 
Wang et al. [116]  RC beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  1. Galvanic corrosion accelerated by electric current 2. Natural corrosion  FRP patching repair technique with Ushaped anchorage strips  Concrete crushing without yielding of rebar, debonding of longitudinal FRP strips  Increase in loadcarrying capacity by 13% 
Wang et al. [120]  Prototype RC bridge pier subjected to quasistatic cyclic test  Impressed current method (3.5% NaCl)  UHPC jacketing  Crushing and spalling of UPHC cover  Decreases in stiffness and strength by 3.6% and 3.7%, respectively 
Li et al. [121]  RC stub column subjected to axial and cyclic lateral loading  Impressed current method (3.5% NaCl)  Combination of CFRP wraps and steel jacketing  Rupture of steel angle, concrete crushing  Increases in strength by 93.2% and ductility by 122.3% 
Yousefi et al. [122]  Circular hollow steel columns under axial compression  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  CFRP jackets  Rupture of CFRP  Increase in ductility by 2% 
Tastani and Pantazopoulou [123]  RC columns under axial compression  Electrochemical corrosion method (5% NaCl)  Carbon and Glass FRP  FRP rupture  Increase in strength and ductility when compared to the original specimen 
Triantafyllou et al. [124]  RC beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (3.0% NaCl) with wet–dry cycles  NSM and EB FRP strengthening  Debonding and concrete crushing  Maximum load enhancements of 44.4% and 22.1% were observed for NSM and EB FRPstrengthened beams, respectively. 
Ray et al. [125]  RC beams subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  CFRP wraps and FRP spike anchor  FRP delamination and FRP rupture  Increases in stiffness by 20% and 11% for PMCFRP and CFOFRPstrengthened specimens 
Lee et al. [126]  RC columns under axial compression  Impressed current method (3.5% NaCl)  CFRP confinement  Circumferential expansion around the CFRP wraps  Increase in strength by 50% and decrease in corrosion rate by 50% in postrepair corrosion process 
EIMaaddawy et al. [127]  RC beams subjected to fourpoint bending test  Mist spraying with fogging compressed air nozzles  CFRP wrapping  Rupture of CFRP composite  Increase in strength by 40% for the fully wrapped CFRP specimen 
Sahmaran et al. [128]  Prism with centrally placed deformed bar under four point bending test  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  Engineered cementitious composites  Microcracks in ECC, concrete spalling, longitudinal cracks.  Decrease in loadcarrying capacity by 34% and 45% for the corrosion process of 25 h and 50 h respectively. 
EIMaaddawy et al. [129]  RC beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (3.0% NaCl)  FRP composite plates with poweractuated fasteners, expansion and threaded anchor bolts  Rupture of CFRP, concrete crushing and loadbearing failure at plates  1. EAB and TAB enhanced strength by 81%–85% 2. PAF enhanced strength by 67% and decreased ductility index by 33% 
Radhi et al. [130]  RC column under axial compression  Impressed current method (3.5% NaCl)  CFRP jackets  Rupture of CFRP fabric  1. Increases in strength by 167% and 216% for one and two layers of CFRP wrapping 2. Decreases in strain levels by 23%, 42% and 48% for 10%, 20% and 30% corrosion levels 
AlAkhras et al. [131]  RC columns under eccentric compression  Impressed current method (3% NaCl)  Hybrid combination of NSM and CFRP wrapping  Concrete crushing, delamination of concrete cover, buckling of longitudinal rebar  Increase in loadcarrying capacity by 16% for hybrid technique when compared to original specimen 
Liu and Li [132]  RC columns under axial compression  Impressed current method (3% NaCl)  PEN fiber strengthening and CFRP wrapping  Rupture of CFRP composite  Enhancement in strength by 99.3% and 66.7% for PEN and CFRP strengthening techniques, respectively. 
Li et al. [133]  RC beams under threepoint bending  Impressed current method (3% NaCl)  FRP laminates  Debonding of CFRP strips  Increase in shear strength by 28.5% for 5% corrosion level 
Kreit et al. [134]  RC beams subjected to threepoint bending test  Salt spraying (35 g/L of NaCl)  Nearsurface mounting using CFRP rod  Concrete crushing, debonding of NSMCFRP rod, rupture of resin  Increase in stiffness by 10% No enhancement in strength or ductility observed 
AlHammoud et al. [135]  RC beam subjected to threepoint bending  Salted concrete (2.5% cement)  CFRP wrapping  Concrete crushing, rupture of CFRP sheets  Increase in fatigue strength by 28% and 20% for 10% and 15% corrosion levels, respectively. 
Xie et al. [136]  RC beams subjected to fourpoint bending  Impressed current method (3% NaCl)  Repair using polymer mortar and CFRP wrap  Concrete crushing, breaking of CFRP sheets, debonding of CFRP strips  Increase in strength by 57.1%, 16.3% and 98.8% for CFRP wrap (only), combined polymer mortar repair + CFRP wrap and bonded CFRP, respectively 
AlMajidi et al. [137]  RC beams subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  PVA and steel fiberbased GPC  Debonding and crushing of PVAFRGPC, occurrence of shear failure in SFRGPC  Increase in loadcarrying capacity by 50% for PVAFRGCstrengthened specimen 
Fang et al. [138]  RC columns under axial compression  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  Alkaliactivated slag mortar and stainless steel wire mesh (SSWM)  Cracking of ferrocement jacket, crushing of mortar inside SSWM  Increases in loadcarrying capacity by 37%, 38% and 72% and increases in ductility by 77%, 44% and 79% 
Elghazy et al. [139]  RC beam subjected to fourpoint bending test  Impressed current method (5% NaCl)  PBOFRCM and CFRP laminates  FRCM delamination and slippage, CFRP rupture  Increases in strength by 105–144% and 130–152% for PBOFRCM and CFRCM laminatestrengthened specimens 
Hou et al. [140]  Bending test  Impressed current method (3.5% NaCl)  UHTCC  combined splitting and pullout mode  Reduction in bond strength up to 13% for beams with medium levels of corrosion 
Zhu et al. [141]  RC stub column under axial compression  Solution prepared with 3% chloride powder  Impressed current cathodic protection structural strengthening (ICCPSS scheme)  Cracking of cementitious matrix, rupture of carbon fiber mesh in hoop direction  Increase in strength by 27.4% with the application of 80 mA/m^{2} current density 
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Brindha, U.; Maheswaran, J.; Chellapandian, M.; Arunachelam, N. Quantitative Assessment of Strengthening Strategies and Design Recommendations for the Repair of CorrosionDamaged Reinforced Concrete Members. Buildings 2023, 13, 1080. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041080
Brindha U, Maheswaran J, Chellapandian M, Arunachelam N. Quantitative Assessment of Strengthening Strategies and Design Recommendations for the Repair of CorrosionDamaged Reinforced Concrete Members. Buildings. 2023; 13(4):1080. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041080
Chicago/Turabian StyleBrindha, Udhayasuriyan, Jeyaprakash Maheswaran, Maheswaran Chellapandian, and Nakarajan Arunachelam. 2023. "Quantitative Assessment of Strengthening Strategies and Design Recommendations for the Repair of CorrosionDamaged Reinforced Concrete Members" Buildings 13, no. 4: 1080. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041080