Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Online Retrofit Decision-Making Tool for Homeowners
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Definition of Building Typologies
2.2. Creation and Validation of Energy Models of Building Typologies
2.3. Generation of Retrofit Measures
2.4. Multicriteria Assessment of Renovation Alternatives
2.4.1. Annual Energy Cost Saving
2.4.2. Capital Cost
2.4.3. The Simple Payback Period
2.4.4. Disruption Level
2.4.5. Moisture Risks
- Green icon: means that the solution does not present a risk of moisture.
- Red Icon: means there is a risk, but the situation may not be serious. It is advisable to further investigate the solution by numerical simulations.
2.5. Prototype Website Development
2.6. Pilot Evaluation
2.6.2. Data Collection and Analysis
3. Prototype Demonstration
4.1. User Acceptance and Satisfaction
4.2. Awareness about Moisture Risks
4.3. Willingness to Pursue a Renovation Project
- Include co-benefits associated with a retrofit in the financial evaluation, which will enable retrofit tools to make a stronger case for investment in retrofitting. The co-benefits that may be quantified are the Net Present Value (NPV) calculation, including available grants, operational and maintenance cost savings, carbon savings, thermal comfort, and reduced incidence of asthma.
- Provide users with the opportunity to select between a range of retrofit measures (e.g., various thicknesses of insulation, different window types, etc.) from the most efficient to the least efficient solutions in order not to scare homeowners with high investment costs of measures targeting high energy standards.
- Use simple language, a clear design, and use graphics to clarify information.
- Facilitate easy and quick data entry without asking users for technical details. This can be done by using automated data collection.
- Use a responsive layout to adapt to various screen sizes.
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- National-Statistics 2020 UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Provisional Figures. 2020. Available online: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/972583/2020_Provisional_emissions_statistics_report.pdf (accessed on 12 February 2022).
- Holmes, G.; Hay, R.; Davies, E.; Hill, J.; Barrett, J.; Style, D.; Vause, E.; Brown, K.; Gault, A.; Stark, C. UK Housing: Fit for the Future? Committee on Climate Change 2019. Available online: https://policycommons.net/artifacts/2638372/uk-housing/3661044/ (accessed on 15 March 2022).
- UK-Parliament Delivering Residential Energy Efficiency. 2021. Available online: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm5801/cmselect/cmenvaud/346/34605.htm (accessed on 15 March 2022).
- Economidou, M.; Todeschi, V.; Bertoldi, P.; D’Agostino, D.; Zangheri, P.; Castellazzi, L. Review of 50 years of EU energy efficiency policies for buildings. Energy Build 2020, 225, 110322. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Esser, A.; Dunne, A.; Meeusen, T.; Quaschning, S.; Wegge, D.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S.; Offermann, M.; John, A.; Reiser, M. Comprehensive Study of Building Energy Renovation Activities and the Uptake of Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings in the EU; Final Report; European Commission: Cologne, Germany, 2019; Available online: https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/97d6a4ca-5847-11ea-8b81-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-119528141 (accessed on 10 January 2022).
- Seddiki, M.; Bennadji, A.; Laing, R.; Gray, D.; Alabid, J.M. Review of Existing Energy Retrofit Decision Tools for Homeowners. Sustainability 2021, 13, 10189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Androutsopoulos, A.; Spanou, A. Energy efficiency actions to uptake energy retrofitting measures in buildings. Procedia Environ. Sci. 2017, 38, 875–881. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Check je Huis. Available online: checkjehuis.stad.gent/ (accessed on 15 March 2021).
- Home Energy Saving Tool. Available online: home-energy-saving-tool.halifax.co.uk/ (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Energy Efficiency Calculator. Available online: simpleenergyadvice.org.uk/energy-efficiency/reduce-bills (accessed on 25 May 2021).
- Home-Energy-Check-Scotland. Available online: https://homeenergyscotland-advice.est.org.uk/Home/ (accessed on 16 May 2021).
- AECB-Home-Energy-Check. Available online: https://www.lowenergybuildings.org.uk/leb/home-energy-use-check/ (accessed on 16 February 2022).
- Aberdeen-City-Council. ACE-Retrofitting: Improving Energy Efficiency in Tenements and Flats. Available online: https://www.aberdeencity.gov.uk/services/housing/home-energy-efficiency/ace-retrofitting-improving-energy-efficiency-tenements-and-flats (accessed on 7 October 2021).
- Reducing-Home-Heat-Loss. Energy Saving Trust. Available online: https://energysavingtrust.org.uk/energy-at-home/reducing-home-heat-loss/ (accessed on 18 February 2022).
- Loga, T.; Stein, B.; Diefenbach, N. TABULA building typologies in 20 European countries—Making energy-related features of residential building stocks comparable. Energy Build 2016, 132, 4–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gilchrist, K.; Craig, T. Home Energy Efficiency-Review of Evidence on Attitudes and Behaviours. The James Hutton Institute. 2014. Available online: https://www.climatexchange.org.uk/media/1844/cxc_brief_home_energy_efficiency_review_-_full_report.pdf (accessed on 12 February 2022).
- Glew, D.; Parker, J.; Thomas, F.; Hardy, A.; Brooke-Peat, M.; Gorse, C. Thin Internal Wall Insulation (TIWI) Measuring Energy Performance Improvements in Dwellings Using Thin Internal Wall Insulation Annex C.; Predicting TIWI Impact Energy & Hygrothermal Simulations. 2021. Available online: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/975989/tiwi-annex-c.pdf (accessed on 28 January 2022).
- Galvin, R.; Sunikka-Blank, M. The UK homeowner-retrofitter as an innovator in a socio-technical system. Energy Policy 2014, 74, 655–662. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De Selincourt Kate. Disastrous Preston Retrofit Scheme Remains Unresolved. Available online: https://passivehouseplus.ie/news/health/disastrous-preston-retrofit-scheme-remains-unresolved (accessed on 16 February 2022).
- Brambilla, A.; Sangiorgio, A. Mould growth in energy efficient buildings: Causes, health implications and strategies to mitigate the risk. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2020, 132, 110093. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Peter, B. Each Home Counts. 2016. Available online: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/578749/Each_Home_Counts__December_2016_.pdf (accessed on 12 February 2022).
- BSI PAS 2035:2019 Retrofitting Dwellings for Improved Energy Efficiency Specification and Guidance. 2021. Available online: https://www.retrofitacademy.org/memberships/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/PAS-2035-and-PAS-2030-2020.pdf (accessed on 18 February 2022).
- Bennadji, A.; Seddiki, M.; Alabid, J.; Laing, R.; Gray, D. Predicting Energy Savings of the UK Housing Stock under a Step-by-Step Energy Retrofit Scenario towards Net-Zero. Energies 2022, 15, 3082. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Office-for-National-Statistics. Energy Efficiency of Housing in England and Wales: 2021. Available online: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/housing/articles/energyefficiencyofhousinginenglandandwales/2021 (accessed on 23 February 2022).
- Scottish-Government. Scottish House Condition Survey: 2019 Key Findings. Available online: https://www.gov.scot/publications/scottish-house-condition-survey-2019-key-findings/documents/ (accessed on 23 February 2022).
- NIHCS. 2016 Northern Ireland House Condition Survey. Available online: https://www.nihe.gov.uk/Working-With-Us/Research/House-Condition-Survey (accessed on 23 February 2022).
- Crawley, J.; Biddulph, P.; Northrop, P.J.; Wingfield, J.; Oreszczyn, T.; Elwell, C. Quantifying the measurement error on England and Wales EPC ratings. Energies 2019, 12, 3523. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zuhaib, S.; Goggins, J. Assessing evidence-based single-step and staged deep retrofit towards nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) using multi-objective optimisation. Energy Effic. 2019, 12, 1891–1920. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wiethe, C. Impact of financial subsidy schemes on climate goals in the residential building sector. J. Clean. Prod. 2022, 344, 131040. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Palmer, J.; Livingstone, M.; Adams, A. What Does It Cost to Retrofit Homes? Updating the Cost Assumptions for BEIS’s Energy Efficiency Modelling; CAR: London, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- GOV.UK Retrofit for the Future: Analysis of Cost Data. 2014. Available online: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/669109/Retrofit_for_the_Future_-_analysis_of_cost_data_report_2014.pdf (accessed on 11 March 2022).
- Solarguide. How Much Does It Cost to Install Solar Panels in the UK? Available online: https://www.solarguide.co.uk/how-much-does-it-cost-to-install-solar-panels#/contact-details (accessed on 11 April 2022).
- Checkatrade. Door Installation Cost. Available online: https://www.checkatrade.com/blog/cost-guides/door-installation-costs/ (accessed on 15 April 2022).
- Retrofit-Academy Level 5 Diploma in Retrofit Coordination & Risk Management. 2022. Available online: https://retrofitacademy.org/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIv-GIrsao-gIVwp7tCh2yzAI5EAAYASAAEgJxj_D_BwE (accessed on 15 January 2022).
- Karvonen, A. Towards systemic domestic retrofit: A social practices approach. Build Res. Inf. 2013, 41, 563–574. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sanders, C.; Glenfeulan, B.S. 5250: 2021 Management of Moisture in Buildings–Code of Practice. 2021. Available online: https://www.bsigroup.com/en-GB/blog/Built-Environment-Blog/bs-5250-2021-management-of-moisture-in-buildings--code-of-practice/ (accessed on 17 January 2022).
- Ali, A.S.; Riley, C.; Acton, E.; Ali, A.; Heidarinejad, M.; Stephens, B. Development and evaluation of an automatic steam radiator control system for retrofitting legacy heating systems in existing buildings. Energy Build. 2021, 251, 111344. [Google Scholar]
- Carvalho, I.; Bernardi, F.A.; Neiva, M.B.; Lima, V.C.; de Oliveira, L.L.; Miyoshi, N.S.B.; Sanches, T.L.M.; Barbosa-Junior, F.; Crepaldi, N.Y.; Yamada, D.B. COVID-19 BR: A web portal for COVID-19 information in Brazil. Procedia Comput. Sci. 2022, 196, 525–532. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Merritt, K.; Zhao, S. An innovative reflection based on critically applying ux design principles. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7, 129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wakefield, C.E.; Watts, K.J.; Meiser, B.; Sansom-Daly, U.; Barratt, A.; Mann, G.J.; Lobb, E.A.; Gaff, C.L.; Howard, K.; Patel, M.I. Development and pilot testing of an online screening decision aid for men with a family history of prostate cancer. Patient Educ. Couns. 2011, 83, 64–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Habes, E.; Jepma, P.; Parlevliet, J.; Bakker, A.; Buurman, B. Video-based tools to enhance nurses’ geriatric knowledge: A development and pilot study. Nurse Educ. Today 2020, 90, 104425. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Li, J.; Ng, S.T.; Skitmore, M. Developing a decision aid for selecting low-carbon refurbishment solutions for multi-story residential buildings in subtropical cities. Energy Build. 2018, 158, 1724–1735. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Morales, R. Developing a Web Tool To Support Youth Tobacco Control. Master’s Thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Li, P.; Froese, T.M. A green home decision-making tool: Sustainability assessment for homeowners. Energy Build 2017, 150, 421–431. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Goodman, H.A.; Pacheco, C.L.; Loescher, L.J. An online intervention to enhance nurse practitioners’ skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and counseling behaviors: A pilot study. J. Dermatol. Nurses’ Assoc. 2018, 10, 20–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kaur, R.; Meiser, B.; Yanes, T.; Young, M.; Barlow-Stewart, K.; Roscioli, T.; Smith, S.; James, P.A. Development and pilot testing of a leaflet informing women with breast cancer about genomic testing for polygenic risk. Fam. Cancer 2019, 18, 147–152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Choueiry, J.; Reszel, J.; Hamid, J.S.; Wilding, J.; Martelli, B.; Harrison, D. Development and pilot evaluation of an educational tool for the FLACC pain scale. Pain Manag. Nurs. 2020, 21, 523–529. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vaismoradi, M.; Turunen, H.; Bondas, T. Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study. Nurs. Health Sci. 2013, 15, 398–405. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Moisture Safe Retrofit Calculator. Available online: https://mseddiki1.wixsite.com/my-site (accessed on 15 May 2022).
- Kok, A.L.; Barendregt, W. Understanding the adoption, use, and effects of ecological footprint calculators among Dutch citizens. J. Clean Prod. 2021, 326, 129341. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gram-Hanssen, K.; Christensen, T.H. Carbon calculators as a tool for a low-carbon everyday life? Sustain. Sci. Pract. Policy 2012, 8, 19–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Collins, A.; Galli, A.; Hipwood, T.; Murthy, A. Living within a One Planet reality: The contribution of personal Footprint calculators. Environ. Res. Lett. 2020, 15, 025008. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dreijerink, L.; Paradies, G. How to Reduce Individual Environmental Impact? A Literature review into the Effects and Behavioral Change Potential of Carbon Footprint Calculators. 2020. Available online: https://repository.tno.nl/islandora/object/uuid:82bec847-f0f7-4b83-bcef-af92b255b525 (accessed on 12 May 2022).
- Alabid, J.; Bennadji, A.; Seddiki, M. A review on the energy retrofit policies and improvements of the UK existing buildings, challenges and benefits. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2022, 159, 112161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- AECB AECB CarbonLite Retrofit Training Course. 2022. Available online: https://aecb.net/the-aecb-carbonlite-retrofit-online-training-course/ (accessed on 5 January 2022).
- Edwards, J. Retrofitting traditional buildings for improved energy performance in the context of BSI PAS 2035. J. Build. Surv. Apprais. Valuat. 2021, 9, 294–304. [Google Scholar]
- Bekaroo, G.; Roopowa, D.; Bokhoree, C. Mobile-based Carbon footprint calculation: Insights from a usability study. In Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Next Generation Computing Applications (NextComp), Mauritius, Madagascar, 19–21 September 2019; IEEE: Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2019; pp. 1–6. [Google Scholar]
- Guzman, L.; Makonin, S.; Clapp, A. CarbonKit: Designing a personal carbon tracking platform. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Social Sensing, Montreal, QC, Canada, 15 April 2019; pp. 24–29. [Google Scholar]
|Median Energy Efficiency Scores (MEES) from Statistics||Calculated MEES|
|Dwelling Type||England||Scotland||Wales||Northern Ireland||UK||UK||Difference MEES|
|Minimal||Low-energy lamps, energy-efficient appliances|
|Low||Heating control, cavity wall insulation, draught stripping, loft insulation|
|Moderate||Replacement boiler, solar water heating, solar PV panels|
|High||Replacement windows, whole house ventilation, external wall insulation|
|Significant||Ground floor insulation, internal wall insulation, new heating installation|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Seddiki, M.; Bennadji, A.; Alabid, J.; Gray, D.; Deveci, G. Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Online Retrofit Decision-Making Tool for Homeowners. Buildings 2022, 12, 1513. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101513
Seddiki M, Bennadji A, Alabid J, Gray D, Deveci G. Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Online Retrofit Decision-Making Tool for Homeowners. Buildings. 2022; 12(10):1513. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101513Chicago/Turabian Style
Seddiki, Mohammed, Amar Bennadji, Jamal Alabid, David Gray, and Gokay Deveci. 2022. "Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Online Retrofit Decision-Making Tool for Homeowners" Buildings 12, no. 10: 1513. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101513