Traditional Chinese wood residences consist of timber frames with masonry infill walls or other types of infill, representing valuable heritage. A field investigation of traditional village dwellings in northern China consisting of timber frames with mud and stone infill walls was conducted. Their construction characteristics are reported, and static cyclic tests were performed on two full-size wood-stone hybrid walls with different configurations (exterior transverse wall and internal transverse wall) and no openings (doors or windows). Their failure mechanics and seismic capacity, i.e., the strength, stiffness, ductility, and energy dissipation, were investigated. The results are compared with a previous experimental study of two full-size timber frames with the same traditional structure but no infill to determine the effect of the mud and stone infill on the lateral resistance. The experimental results indicate that the stone infill has a critical influence on the lateral performance of traditional village buildings, resulting in a high lateral stiffness, high strength (>20 kN), and a high ductility ratio (>10). An increase in the vertical load leads to an increase in the lateral resistance of the timber frame with infill walls, larger for the internal transverse wall than the external gable wall. The incompatibility of the deformation between the timber frame and stone infill is the main failure reason, resulting in falling stones and collapse with undamaged timber frames. Suggestions are provided for the protection and repair of traditional wood residences in northern China.
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