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Open AccessArticle

Nonlinear Static Seismic Response of a Building Equipped with Hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber Floor Diaphragms and Concentric X-Braced Steel Frames

1
Sustainable Engineered Structural Solutions Laboratory, Department of Wood Science, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
2
Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38122 Trento, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Buildings 2021, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11010009
Received: 6 November 2020 / Revised: 15 December 2020 / Accepted: 21 December 2020 / Published: 24 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timber Structures: Latest Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives)
Simplified seismic design procedures mostly recommend the adoption of rigid floor diaphragms when forming a building’s lateral force-resisting structural system. While rigid behavior is compatible with many reinforced concrete or composite steel-concrete floor systems, the intrinsic stiffness properties of wood and ductile timber connections of timber floor slabs typically make reaching a such comparable in-plane response difficult. Codes or standards in North America widely cover wood-frame construction, with provisions given for both rigid and flexible floor diaphragms designs. Instead, research is ongoing for emerging cross-laminated-timber (CLT) and hybrid CLT-based technologies, with seismic design codification still currently limited. This paper deals with a steel-CLT-based hybrid structure built by assembling braced steel frames with CLT-steel composite floors. Preliminary investigation on the performance of a 3-story building under seismic loads is presented, with particular attention to the influence of in-plane timber diaphragms flexibility on the force distribution and lateral deformation at each story. The building complies with the Italian Building Code damage limit state and ultimate limit state design requirements by considering a moderate seismic hazard scenario. Nonlinear static analyses are performed adopting a finite-element model calibrated based on experimental data. The CLT-steel composite floor in-plane deformability shows mitigated effects on the load distribution into the bracing systems compared to the ideal rigid behavior. On the other hand, the lateral deformation always rises at least 17% and 21% on average, independently of the story and load distribution along the building’s height. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid structures; mass timber construction; cross-laminated timber (CLT); lateral resistance; semi-rigid diaphragms; load distribution; seismic performance; pushover analysis hybrid structures; mass timber construction; cross-laminated timber (CLT); lateral resistance; semi-rigid diaphragms; load distribution; seismic performance; pushover analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roncari, A.; Gobbi, F.; Loss, C. Nonlinear Static Seismic Response of a Building Equipped with Hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber Floor Diaphragms and Concentric X-Braced Steel Frames. Buildings 2021, 11, 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11010009

AMA Style

Roncari A, Gobbi F, Loss C. Nonlinear Static Seismic Response of a Building Equipped with Hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber Floor Diaphragms and Concentric X-Braced Steel Frames. Buildings. 2021; 11(1):9. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11010009

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roncari, Andrea; Gobbi, Filippo; Loss, Cristiano. 2021. "Nonlinear Static Seismic Response of a Building Equipped with Hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber Floor Diaphragms and Concentric X-Braced Steel Frames" Buildings 11, no. 1: 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11010009

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