Precast concrete (PC) structures have been widely used around the world in recent years, especially in China [1
]. In accordance with their connection type, they can be divided into “wet” connected structures and “dry” connected structures. The “wet” connected structures consist of cast-in-place concrete in the beam column joint area and prefabricated beams and columns, while the “dry” connected structures are connected by welded plates, bolts or prestressed steel bars, and there is no cast-in-place concrete in the core area. In recent decades, a large number of experimental tests and numerical studies on the “wet” connected structures have been completed, while studies of “dry” connected structures are still very limited. Furthermore, current studies on dry-type structures are mainly focused on experiments on beam-to-column connections, which do not reflect the influence of floor slabs on the overall seismic behavior.
Traditional dry-type structures can be mainly categorized into prestressed splicing joints, welding connection joints and bolt connection joints. In recent years, other new types of dry connections have been proposed in the context of the development of energy-saving industrialized buildings, such as tenon connections, key-way connections and mechanical connections [2
]. Among all these dry connection types, prestressed connections are preferred as they are easy to assemble in engineering practice and provide better performance. Since the 1990s, the PRESSS project [3
] (a precast seismic structure system project carried out in the United States and Japan) has undertaken special joint tests and finite element analyses for this kind of connection and built the related constructions. The project finally recommended four kinds of prestressed connections, as shown in Figure 1
, namely pre-tension with/without damping and post-tension with/without damping.
At present, relevant research has mainly focused on the post-tensioned prestressed connection since it can be used as an assembly method in the construction stage and can also withstand the bending moment at the beam ends during service, thus forming an overall structure. A structure with this kind of connection has very small residual deformations and also has very good recovery performance. However, the corresponding energy dissipation capacity is relatively poor and the shear capacity of the beam end is insufficient. Consequently, supplemental energy dissipation elements are usually attached to the connections.
Many experimental studies, as well as numerical simulations, have been conducted to assess the seismic performance of dry-type precast connections. Cheok et al. [4
] performed ten prestressed precast joint tests and four cast-in-situ joint tests as comparisons, finding that the energy dissipation capacity of bonded prestressed joints was higher than that of their unbonded counterparts. Cai et al. [5
] conducted cyclic loading tests on three middle joints with different key-way lengths, highlighting that the seismic performance of joints with long key-way lengths were better than those with short lengths. Guo et al. [6
] proposed a web friction self-centering prestressed beam-column joint, which has the advantages of self-centering after an earthquake and of providing a clear energy dissipation mechanism. The steel sleeve at the end of the beam avoids local compression of and damage to the beam and column during relative rotation, whereas the friction device at the web of the beam end provides good energy dissipation capability. Alver et al. [7
] applied displacement controlled cyclic loading to four precast connections, one specimen without short cantilever beam and three others formed with short cantilever beam in different dimensions. Numerical simulation was also conducted by SAP2000 and showed good agreement with the experiment. Yuksel et al. [8
] performed monotonic and cyclic pushover tests on industrial connection joints (”dry” type) and civilian connection joints (“wet” type). All the joints exhibited good hysteretic performance but a significant degree of pinching effect appeared when the displacement angle, namely drift, became large. In addition, the authors also conducted a finite element simulation of the corresponding joints and a good analysis result was shown, which verified the credibility of this type of finite element analysis. Zhang et al. [9
] proposed a kind of unbonded, prefabricated, post-tensioned hybrid prestressed (PTHP) concrete frame structure, as well as providing a related simulation method for this kind of joint using OpenSees. Compared with cast-in-place structures, PTHP joints are characterized by higher levels of bearing capacity, stiffness, ductility and energy dissipation capacity. Han et al. [10
] proposed a new type of joint that consists of a prestressed concrete beam and high-strength reinforced concrete column with plates and bolts. Moreover, Liao et al. [11
] proposed a new type of joint consisting of prefabricated columns, prestressed T-shaped composite beams and cast-in-situ core area. The test results of these two types showed that the hysteretic curves of the new-type joint specimens were plump and the seismic performance was good. Brunesi et al. [12
] conducted several pseudostatic cyclic tests and dynamic shake-table tests on full-scale reinforced PC structures between 2015 and 2020, studying the performance of these structural systems and their failure modes as well as providing further data for future research. To study the properties and the force transfer mechanism of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), Valikhani et al. [17
] presented an experimental and numerical program for calculation and analysis; related nonlinear finite element analysis was conducted and the numerical error was greatly reduced. Sucharda et al. [18
] proposed a numerical procedure for the identification of fracture mechanical parameters for a specific concrete through the use of developed inverse analysis combining multicriteria decision analysis, stochastic modelling and nonlinear analysis. Li et al. [19
] used commercial code LS-DYNA to perform numerical simulations of segmental columns under different blast loadings, investigating the blast loading resistance capacities of segmental reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Romain et al. [20
] proposed a new numerical model accounting for friction, dowel behavior and the contribution of the neoprene components. The model was verified by comparing data with existing experimental tests; moreover, a parametric study was performed to study the contributions of the different components, especially those which were most influential on the maximum horizontal strength and hysteretic energy dissipation.
However, most existing studies undertake experiments to investigate the resisting mechanisms of connections under seismic loading, only evaluating the influence of limited engineering parameters due to the high costs in time and money. To this end, several numerical models have also been developed for dry-type connections. The most famous method is to use fiber-based elements to model beams and columns, truss elements to model the prestressed tendons and rotational springs to model the energy dissipation elements. Though this method has been validated by simulating several beam-to-column connections, a key factor is neglected in the modeling approach, that is, the floor slabs. Based on this background information, the present paper developed a new method to model dry-type precast beam-slab assembly. This method was based on 2D layered shell elements in the OpenSees software. Two beam-slab assembly cyclic tests were used to validate the proposed method and a parametric analysis was performed to investigate the influence of slab parameters on the cyclic behavior of the beam–slab assembly.