Bauxite residue (BR) is one of the most commonly generated industrial wastes in the world. Thus, novel techniques for its proper utilization must be urgently developed. Herein, seawater-neutralized BR–unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) composites are presented as insulating construction materials with promising mechanical performance. Composites with different BR content (0–60 vol.%) were prepared to evaluate the influence of BR content on the compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths as well as the moduli of BR–UPR composites. Experimental results revealed that adding BR particles to the polyester matrix increased the compressive properties (strength, modulus, and strain). The composites containing 20 vol.% BR showed the maximum compressive strength (108 MPa), while the composites with 30 vol.% BR exhibited the maximum compressive modulus (1 GPa). Moreover, the reduction in tensile and flexural strengths with an increase in the BR content may be attributed to the lower efficiency of stress transfer between the BR particle–polyester interface due to weak adhesion at the interface, direct contact between particles, and presence of voids or porosity. Although the tensile strength and failure stress decreased with increasing filler content, the produced composites showed outstanding tensile strength (4.0–19.3 MPa) compared with conventional insulating materials. In addition, the composite with 40 vol.% BR demonstrated a flexural strength of 15.5 MPa. Overall, BR–UPR composites showed excellent compatibility with promising mechanical properties as potential insulating construction materials.
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