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Open AccessArticle

Investigating the Mechanics of Hybrid Metal Extrusion and Bonding Additive Manufacturing by FEA

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(8), 811;
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
PDF [9873 KB, uploaded 24 July 2019]


Hybrid Metal Extrusion & Bonding Additive Manufacturing (HYB-AM) is a hybrid manufacturing technology for the deposition of layered metal structures. This new deposition process is a complex metal forming operation, yet there is significant lack of knowledge regarding the governing mechanisms. In this work, we have used finite element analysis (FEA) to study material flow in the extruder, as well as the conditions at the interfaces of the deposited extrudate and the substrate, aiming to identify and characterize the process parameters involved. Analysis of the material flow shows that the extrusion pressure is virtually independent of the deposition rate. Furthermore, from the simulations of the material deposition sequence, it is clearly visible how the contact pressure at the interface will drop below the bonding threshold if the feed speed is too high relative to the material flow through the die. The reduced pressure also leads to the formation of a ‘gas-pocket’ inside the die, thus further degrading the conditions for bonding. The analyses of the process have provided valuable insights for the further development and industrialization of the process. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; conform extrusion; HYB-AM; aluminium alloys additive manufacturing; conform extrusion; HYB-AM; aluminium alloys

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Blindheim, J.; Welo, T.; Steinert, M. Investigating the Mechanics of Hybrid Metal Extrusion and Bonding Additive Manufacturing by FEA. Metals 2019, 9, 811.

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