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Open AccessArticle

Plasma Multiwire Technology with Alternating Wire Feed for Tailor-Made Material Properties in Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing

Welding and Joining Institute, RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(7), 745;
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 22 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 2 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arc-based Additive Manufacturing)
PDF [4302 KB, uploaded 3 July 2019]


Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is one of the most promising technologies for large-scale 3D printing of metal parts. Besides the high deposition rates, one of the advantages of WAAM is the possibility of using in situ alloying to modify the chemical composition and therefore the material properties of the fabricated workpiece. This can be achieved by feeding multiple wires of different chemical compositions into the molten pool of the welding process and generating a new alloy during the manufacturing process itself. At present, the chemical composition is changed stepwise by keeping the wire feed speeds per layer constant. This article describes the possibilities of generating chemically graded structures by constantly alternating the wire feed speeds of a multiwire WAAM process. This enables the chemical composition to be smoothly changed during the printing process, and generating structures with highly complex material properties. Several material combinations for different possible applications were successfully tested. Furthermore, grading strategies to avoid negative influences of low-ductility intermetallic phases were examined. The results show that low-ductility phases may even have a beneficial influence on the fracture behavior if they are combined with ductile phases. Moreover, prospective possible applications are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: WAAM; functionally graded materials; multiwire welding; additive manufacturing WAAM; functionally graded materials; multiwire welding; additive manufacturing

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Reisgen, U.; Sharma, R.; Oster, L. Plasma Multiwire Technology with Alternating Wire Feed for Tailor-Made Material Properties in Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing. Metals 2019, 9, 745.

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