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Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Development of Residual Stresses in Thermo-Mechanically Processed Cr-Alloyed Steel 1.3505

1
Institut für Umformtechnik und Umformmaschinen, Leibniz Universität Hannover (PZH), 30823 Garbsen, Germany
2
Institut für Mechanik, Abteilung Bauwissenschaften, Fakultät für Ingenieurwissenschaften, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45141 Essen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(4), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9040480
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 14 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract

Residual stresses in components are a central issue in almost every manufacturing process, as they influence the performance of the final part. Regarding hot forming processes, there is a great potential for defining a targeted residual stress state, as many adjustment parameters, such as deformation state or temperature profile, are available that influence residual stresses. To ensure appropriate numerical modeling of residual stresses in hot forming processes, comprehensive material characterization and suitable multiscale Finite Element (FE) simulations are required. In this paper, experimental and numerical investigations of thermo-mechanically processed steel alloy 1.3505 (DIN 100Cr6) are presented that serve as a basis for further optimization of numerically modeled residual stresses. For this purpose, cylindrical upsetting tests at high temperature with subsequently cooling of the parts in the media air or water are carried out. Additionally, the process is simulated on the macroscale and compared to the results based on the experimental investigations. Therefore, the experimentally processed specimens are examined regarding the resulting microstructure, distortions, and residual stresses. For the investigation on a smaller scale, a numerical model is set up based on the state-data of the macroscopic simulation and experiments, simulating the transformation of the microstructure using phase-field theory and FE analysis on micro- and meso-scopic level. View Full-Text
Keywords: residual stresses; multiscale simulation; thermo-mechanical forming process; microstructure; distortions; multi-phase-field; martensite transformation; FE2-method; X-ray diffraction residual stresses; multiscale simulation; thermo-mechanical forming process; microstructure; distortions; multi-phase-field; martensite transformation; FE2-method; X-ray diffraction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Behrens, B.-A.; Schröder, J.; Brands, D.; Scheunemann, L.; Niekamp, R.; Chugreev, A.; Sarhil, M.; Uebing, S.; Kock, C. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Development of Residual Stresses in Thermo-Mechanically Processed Cr-Alloyed Steel 1.3505. Metals 2019, 9, 480.

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