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Metals 2019, 9(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020177

Direct Macroscopic Modeling of Grain Structure and Macrosegregation with a Cellular Automaton–Finite Element Model

Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract

Grain structure and macrosegregation are two main factors determining mechanical properties of components and are strongly coupled during alloy solidification. A two-dimensional (2D) cellular automaton (CA)–finite element (FE) model is developed to achieve a direct macroscopic modeling of grain structure and macrosegregation during the solidification of binary alloys. With the conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy, and solute solved by a macroscopic FE model and the grain structure described by a microscopic CA model, a two-way coupling between the CA and FE models is applied. Furthermore, the effect of the fluid flow on the dendrite tip growth velocity is considered by modified dendrite tip growth kinetics. The CAFE model is applied to a quasi-2D benchmark solidification experiment of a Sn–3.0wt.%Pb alloy, and the grain structure and macrosegregation are predicted simultaneously. It is demonstrated that the model has a capacity to describe the undercooling ahead of the growth front. The growth directions of columnar grains, grain sizes, and columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) position are obviously modified by the fluid flow, and obvious segregated channels almost aligned with the orientations of the columnar grains are found. Qualitatively good agreement is obtained between the predicted segregation profiles and experimental measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: grain structure; macrosegregation; cellular automaton; finite element; fluid flow grain structure; macrosegregation; cellular automaton; finite element; fluid flow
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Chen, Q.; Shen, H. Direct Macroscopic Modeling of Grain Structure and Macrosegregation with a Cellular Automaton–Finite Element Model. Metals 2019, 9, 177.

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