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Metals 2019, 9(2), 176;

Influence of Porosity on the Elastic Modulus of Ti-Zr-Ta-Nb Foams with a Low Nb Content

Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso C.P. 2390123, Chile
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Unidad Morelia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia UNAM. Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro No. 8701, Col. Ex-Hacienda de San José de la Huerta, Morelia C.P. 58190, Michoacán, Mexico
Escuela de Construcción Civil, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago C.P. 8320000, Chile
Núcleo de Matemáticas, Física y Estadística, Facultad de Estudios Interdisciplinarios, Universidad Mayor, Manuel Montt 318, Providencia C.P. 7500628, Chile
Departamento de Física, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campús de Arrosadua, C.P. 31006 Pamplona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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The development of titanium foams with a low elastic modulus has increased their scientific and technological relevance due to the evident need to avoid stress shielding problems. In this work, we studied the synthesis and characterization of Ti-13Zr-13Ta-3Nb (wt.%) alloy foams which present high potential for biomedical applications. A Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr mixture was produced by mechanical alloying using a planetary mill. Ti alloy foams were obtained using NaCl as a space-holder (40, 50, and 60 v/v %) that was mixed with the metallic powders and compacted under 420 MPa stress. NaCl particles were removed from the green compacts by submerging samples in distilled water at 60 °C. The green compacts were sintered at 1300 °C for 3 h in Ar atmosphere. Powders and foams were characterized by SEM and optical microscopy. The results showed that Ti-based foams with a tailored heterogeneous pore distribution can be obtained using the space holder method. The elastic modulus (E) of foams was estimated and measured between 5 and 25 GPa using theoretical and finite element analysis (FEA) models which are close to the E values measured experimentally. The results showed that foams with 50% and 60% porosity are potential bone replacement materials because their E value is closer to the E value of human bone. View Full-Text
Keywords: metallic foam; titanium alloys; elastic modulus; biomaterials; powder metallurgy metallic foam; titanium alloys; elastic modulus; biomaterials; powder metallurgy

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Aguilar, C.; Arancibia, M.; Alfonso, I.; Sancy, M.; Tello, K.; Salinas, V.; De Las Cuevas, F. Influence of Porosity on the Elastic Modulus of Ti-Zr-Ta-Nb Foams with a Low Nb Content. Metals 2019, 9, 176.

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