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Article

Influence of Na2CO3 and K2CO3 Addition on Iron Grain Growth during Carbothermic Reduction of Red Mud

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Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Iron Ore Processing, A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Science, 49 Leninsky prosp, 119334 Moscow, Russia
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Department of Energy-Efficient and Resource-Saving Industrial Technologies, National University of Science & Technology (MISIS), 4 Leninsky prosp., 119049 Moscow, Russia
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I.P. Bardin Laboratory for Problems of Metallurgy for Complex Ores, A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Science, 49 Leninsky prosp., 119334 Moscow, Russia
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Scientific Research Centre “Thermochemistry of Materials”, National University of Science & Technology (MISIS), 4 Leninsky prosp, 119049 Moscow, Russia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(12), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9121313
Received: 15 November 2019 / Revised: 29 November 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 6 December 2019
Red mud is a by-product of alumina production from bauxite ore by the Bayer method, which contains considerable amounts of valuable components such as iron, aluminum, titanium, and scandium. In this study, an approach was applied to extract iron, i.e., carbothermic reduction roasting of red mud with sodium and potassium carbonates followed by magnetic separation. The thermodynamic analysis of iron and iron-free components’ behavior during carbothermic reduction was carried out by HSC Chemistry 9.98 (Outotec, Pori, Finland) and FactSage 7.1 (Thermfact, Montreal, Canada; GTT-Technologies, Herzogenrath, Germany) software. The effects of the alkaline carbonates’ addition, as well as duration and temperature of roasting on the iron metallization degree, iron grains’ size, and magnetic separation process were investigated experimentally. The best conditions for the reduction roasting were found to be as follows: 22.01% of K2CO3 addition, 1250 °C, and 180 min of duration. As a generalization of the obtained data, the mechanism of alkaline carbonates’ influence on iron grain growth was proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: red mud; bauxite residue; reduction roasting; sodium carbonate; potassium carbonate; iron grain growth; magnetic separation; recycling; utilization red mud; bauxite residue; reduction roasting; sodium carbonate; potassium carbonate; iron grain growth; magnetic separation; recycling; utilization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zinoveev, D.; Grudinsky, P.; Zakunov, A.; Semenov, A.; Panova, M.; Valeev, D.; Kondratiev, A.; Dyubanov, V.; Petelin, A. Influence of Na2CO3 and K2CO3 Addition on Iron Grain Growth during Carbothermic Reduction of Red Mud. Metals 2019, 9, 1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/met9121313

AMA Style

Zinoveev D, Grudinsky P, Zakunov A, Semenov A, Panova M, Valeev D, Kondratiev A, Dyubanov V, Petelin A. Influence of Na2CO3 and K2CO3 Addition on Iron Grain Growth during Carbothermic Reduction of Red Mud. Metals. 2019; 9(12):1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/met9121313

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zinoveev, Dmitry, Pavel Grudinsky, Andrey Zakunov, Artem Semenov, Maria Panova, Dmitry Valeev, Alex Kondratiev, Valery Dyubanov, and Alexander Petelin. 2019. "Influence of Na2CO3 and K2CO3 Addition on Iron Grain Growth during Carbothermic Reduction of Red Mud" Metals 9, no. 12: 1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/met9121313

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