3. Classification of AM for Manufacturing Metallic Components
3.1. Powder Bed Fusion
3.1.1. Selective Laser Melting
3.1.2. Electron Beam Melting
3.2. Directed Energy Deposition
4. Metallic Materials Used for AM in the Aerospace Industry
5. Applications of Metal AM in the Aerospace Industry
5.1. Propulsion System in Aircraft and Space Transportation
5.2. Structural Components for Aircraft and Spacecraft
5.3. Maintenance and Repair of Aircraft Components
5.3.1. Repairs Using Directed Energy Deposition AM
5.3.2. Repairs Using Supersonic Particle Deposition AM
5.4. Manufacturing Spare Parts for Legacy Aircraft
6. Current Outstanding Issues for Metal AM in the Aerospace Industry
6.1. Standards and Certification Qualifications
6.1.1. Barriers, Challenges, and Opportunities
Fatigue Properties of AM-Fabricated Aerospace Components
Non-Destructive Testing, Evaluation, and In-Situ Process Monitoring
Hybrid AM/SM Approach
Topology Optimization and Design for Additive Manufacturing
6.1.2. Current Standards and Certification Developments
6.2. Sustainability of Metal AM for Aerospace Applications
- An average improvement of aircraft fuel efficiency of 1.5% per year from 2009–2020.
- A cap on net aviation CO2 emissions from 2020 (also known as carbon-neutral growth).
- A reduction in net aviation CO2 emissions of 50% by 2050 relative to 2005 levels.
6.2.1. Economic Sustainability
6.2.2. Energy Consumption and Savings Consideration
6.2.3. Health and Safety Risks and Environmental Considerations
6.3. Development of the Supply Chain for the Aerospace Industry
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Additive Manufacturing Standards
|1. Government Documents [1,23]|
|MSFC-STD-3716||Standard for Additively Manufactured Spaceflight Hardware by Laser Powder Bed Fusion in Metals|
|NPR 7120.5||NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements|
|NASA-STD-5001||Structural Design and Test Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware|
|NASA-STD-5017||Design and Development Requirements for Mechanisms|
|NASA-STD-5019||Fracture Control Requirements for Spaceflight Hardware|
|NASA-STD-6016||Standard Materials and Processes Requirements for Spacecraft|
|JSC 65828||Structural Design Requirements and Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware|
|MSFC-SPEC-3717||Specification for Control and Qualification of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Metallurgical Processes|
|2. Non-Government Documents [1,23]|
|ASTM E8/E8M||Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials|
|ASTM E21||Standard Test Methods for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests of Metallic Materials|
|ASTM E399||Standard Test Method for Linear-Elastic Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness KIc of Metallic Materials|
|ASTM E466||Standard Practice for Conducting Force Controlled Constant Amplitude Axial Fatigue Tests of Metallic Materials|
|ASTM E606/E606M||Standard Test Method for Strain-Controlled Fatigue Testing ASTM|
|ASTM E1450||Standard Test Method for Tension Testing of Structural Alloys in Liquid Helium|
|ASTM E1820 ISO/ASTM||Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness|
|ISO/ASTM 52921||Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing-Coordinate Systems and Test Methodologies|
|SAE AS9100||Quality Management Systems – Requirements for Aviation, Space and Defence Organizations|
|3. ASTM technology standards for Additive manufacturing |
|Design||ISO/ASTM52915-16||Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) Version 1.2|
|ISO/ASTM52910-18||Additive manufacturing—Design—Requirements, guidelines and recommendations|
|Materials and Processes||F2924-14||Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Titanium-6 Aluminum-4 Vanadium with Powder Bed Fusion|
|F3001-14||Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Titanium-6 Aluminum-4 Vanadium ELI (Extra Low Interstitial) with Powder Bed Fusion|
|F3049-14||Standard Guide for Characterizing Properties of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing Processes|
|F3055-14a||Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Nickel Alloy (UNS N07718) with Powder Bed Fusion|
|F3056-14e1||Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Nickel Alloy (UNS N06625) with Powder Bed Fusion|
|F3091/F3091M-14||Standard Specification for Powder Bed Fusion of Plastic Materials|
|F3184-16||Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Stainless Steel Alloy (UNS S31603) with Powder Bed Fusion|
|F2924-14||Standard Guide for Directed Energy Deposition of Metals|
|F3213-17||Standard for Additive Manufacturing—Finished Part Properties—Standard Specification for Cobalt-28 Chromium-6 Molybdenum via Powder Bed Fusion|
|F3301-18a||Standard for Additive Manufacturing—Post Processing Methods—Standard Specification for Thermal Post-Processing Metal Parts Made Via Powder Bed Fusion|
|F3302-18||Standard for Additive Manufacturing—Finished Part Properties—Standard Specification for Titanium Alloys via Powder Bed Fusion|
|F3303-18||Standard for Additive Manufacturing–Process Characteristics and Performance: Practice for Metal Powder Bed Fusion Process to Meet Critical Applications|
|F3318-18||Standard for Additive Manufacturing—Finished Part Properties—Specification for AlSi10Mg with Powder Bed Fusion—Laser Beam|
|ISO/ASTM52901-16||Standard Guide for Additive Manufacturing—General Principles—Requirements for Purchased AM Parts|
|Terminology||ISO/ASTM52900-15||Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing—General Principles—Terminology|
|Test Methods||F2971-13||Standard Practice for Reporting Data for Test Specimens Prepared by Additive Manufacturing|
|F3122-14||Standard Guide for Evaluating Mechanical Properties of Metal Materials Made via Additive Manufacturing Processes|
|ISO/ASTM52921-13||Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing-Coordinate Systems and Test|
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|AM Category||Sub-Category||Other Commercially Known Names|
|Powder bed fusion||Laser-PBF (L-PBF)||Selective laser melting, direct metal laser sintering, direct metal laser re-melting|
|Directed energy deposition||Electron beam-PBF (E-PBF)||Electron beam melting|
|Powder-fed||3D laser cladding, direct laser deposition (DLD), direct laser fabrication (DLF), direct metal deposition, laser cladding (LC), laser engineered net shaping (LENS), laser hard bending/facing, laser material/melting deposition, laser rapid/solid forming|
|Wire-fed||Wire and arc AM|
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