Synthesis of Complex-Alloyed Nickel Aluminides from Oxide Compounds by Aluminothermic Method
2. Materials and Methods
- X-ray spectral microanalysis was performed on the alloy complexes to determine the content of elements in different structural components using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) Hitachi SU-70 (Tokyo, Japan) with attachments for energy-dispersive (Thermo Scientific Ultra Dry) and wave (Thermo Scientific Magna Ray) X-ray spectral microanalyzer;
- X-ray diffraction analysis, which was performed on a diffractometer “DRON-7” in copper radiation using a diffraction database.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Alloy No. 1. Ni-Al-Mo
- In β′-solid solution based on NiAl (points 3–5 on Figure 1a), the following elements are dissolved, atom %: 61.35 Ni; 38.04 Al; β′ = Ni61.35Al38.04 = Ni1,6Al. In this phase, 0.24 atom % Mo is dissolved;
- In the quasi-eutectic (points 1, 2, 6 on Figure 1a) the content of Ni and Al decreases, and the concentration of Mo increased substantially in comparison with the β′ phase, atom %: 58.64 Ni; 3.65 Al; 37.69 Mo. It can be assumed that the intermetallide phase MoNi (β′ + MoNi) crystallizes in quasi-eutectic.
3.2. Alloy No. 2. Ni-Al-W
- In β′ phase of the variable composition (points 4–6 on Figure 1b), 65.22 atom % Ni and 34.44 atom % Al are dissolved, but W is not dissolved in this phase; β′ = Ni65.22Al34.44 = Ni1,9Al;
- In quasi-eutectic (points 1–3 on Figure 1b), 12.81 atom % Ni and 87.18 atom % W are dissolved, but Al does not dissolve in this phase; W is in the form of a rounded, independent phase in the eutectic, since Ni does not dissolve in W.
3.3. Alloy No. 3. Ni-Al-Cr
- In β′ phase (points 1–3, 7–10 on Figure 1c), the dissolved elements are, atom %: 51.08 Ni; 43.32 Al; 5.58 Cr; β′ = Ni51.08Al43.32 = Ni1.18Al with 5.58 atom % Cr;
- In quasi-eutectic (points 4–6 on Figure 1c), the dissolved elements are, atom %: 17.7 Ni; 5.35 Al; 76.93 Cr. The assumed β′ phase of the variable composition has the corresponding stoichiometric ratio, atom %: β′ = Ni51.08Al43.32 = Ni1.18Al; 5.58 atom % Cr is dissolved in nickel aluminide;
- In eutectic (points 4, 5, 6), the dissolved elements are, atom %: 17.7 Ni; 5.35 Al; 76.93 Cr. According to the phase diagrams of the alloys Ni–Cr and Al–Cr, nickel and aluminum can be dissolved in chromium, thus forming a β-solid solution based on chromium.
3.4. Alloy No. 4. Ni-Al-Ti
- In β′ phase (Figure 1d, points 1–3), the following elements are dissolved, atom %: 52.33 Ni; 41.35 Al; 6.31 Ti; β′ = Ni52.33Al41.35 = Ni1.27Al with 6.31 atom % Ti; at the points 4–5, the mixture of nickel aluminide and titanium aluminide is formed, atom %: 29.06 Ni; 35.75 Al; 35.23 Ti;
- In quasi-eutectic (Figure 1d, points 6–9), Ni and Al content decreased, and Ti concentration increased substantially in comparison with the β′ phase, atom %: 33.84 Ni; 36.07 Al; 30.08 Ti. Therefore, intermetallides, nickel aluminides and titanium nickelides may be the second phases in the eutectic.
3.5. Alloys No. 5. Ni-Al-Cr-Mo-W and No. 6. Ni-Al-Cr-Mo-W-Ti
3.6. Alloy No. 7. Ni-Al-Cr-V and Alloy No. 8. Ni-Al-Cr-Mo-V
- In β′ phase (points 4–9 in Figure 2b), the following elements are dissolved, atom %: 50.35 Ni; 41.57 Al; 4.67 Cr; 0.53 Mo; 2.87 V; Ni50.35Al41.57 = Ni1.21Al with alloying elements Cr, Mo and V;
- In quasi-eutectic (points 1–3 on Figure 2b), the following elements are dissolved, atom %: 10.2 Ni; 5.88 Al; 31.94 Cr; 32.68 Mo; 19.28 V. According to the phase diagram of V–Cr, these elements form continuous solid solutions.
- system Ni-Al-Mo: 63.33 Ni; 39.69 Al; 5.97 Mo;
- system Ni-Al-W: 62.95 Ni; 33.96 Al; 3.19 W;
- system Ni-Al-Cr: 37.29 Ni; 32.81 Al; 29.90 Cr;
- system Ni-Al-Ti: 49.61 Ni; 40.34 Al; 10.05 Ti.
- Nickel aluminides doped with chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium and vanadium have been successfully obtained in the joint aluminothermic reduction of nickel oxide and transition metal oxides. The thermodynamic feasibility of joint reduction of oxides of alloying metals is consistent with the results of the experiments made on complex-alloyed nickel aluminides. Conditions for the alloys’ synthesis have been studied and the obtained alloys have been identified by the methods of elemental and X-ray phase analysis. The microstructure investigations show that all the alloys obtained are formed on the basis of two structural components: nickel aluminide (NiAl) with variable content of alloying elements (β′ phase) and quasi-eutectic consisting of β′ phase and intermetallic phases.
- The obtained intermetallic alloys (Ni–Al, Ni-Al-Cr, Ni-Al-Mo, Ni-Al-W, Ni-Al-Cr-Mo-W) have been used as anode materials for the creation of heat-resistant coatings by the ESD method on steel C1030 grade, which actually display increased heat resistance by 7.5 times, while the Ni-Al-Cr-Mo-W alloy coating practically does not oxidize under the selected test conditions.
- The use of intermetallic NiAl as a modifying additive in tin bronze allows increase of the microhardness of the α-solid solution by 1.9 times and the microhardness of the eutectoid (α + β phase) by 2.7 times, when adding of 0.15 wt. % master alloy.
Conflicts of Interest
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|No.||Charge Composition Ratio, Weight Fractions||Elements Content, atom %||Microhardness, MPa|
|No.||Charge Composition Ratio, Weight Fractions||Elements Content, atom %|
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Gostishchev, V.; Ri, E.; Ri, H.; Kim, E.; Ermakov, M.; Khimukhin, S.; Deev, V.; Prusov, E. Synthesis of Complex-Alloyed Nickel Aluminides from Oxide Compounds by Aluminothermic Method. Metals 2018, 8, 439. https://doi.org/10.3390/met8060439
Gostishchev V, Ri E, Ri H, Kim E, Ermakov M, Khimukhin S, Deev V, Prusov E. Synthesis of Complex-Alloyed Nickel Aluminides from Oxide Compounds by Aluminothermic Method. Metals. 2018; 8(6):439. https://doi.org/10.3390/met8060439Chicago/Turabian Style
Gostishchev, Victor, Ernst Ri, Hosen Ri, Evgeniy Kim, Michail Ermakov, Sergey Khimukhin, Vladislav Deev, and Evgeny Prusov. 2018. "Synthesis of Complex-Alloyed Nickel Aluminides from Oxide Compounds by Aluminothermic Method" Metals 8, no. 6: 439. https://doi.org/10.3390/met8060439