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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of Porous Phosphate Coatings Enriched with Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper Created on CP Titanium Grade 2 by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

Department of Engineering and Informatics Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Racławicka 15-17, PL 75-620 Koszalin, Poland
Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Realfagbygget E3-124 Høgskoleringen 5, NO 7491 Trondheim, Norway
HORIBA FRANCE S.A.S., Avenue de la Vauve—Passage Jobin Yvon, CS 45002, 91120 Palaiseau, France
Hochschule Wismar-University of Applied Sciences Technology, Business and Design, Faculty of Engineering, DE 23966 Wismar, Germany
Institute of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Geology, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2018, 8(6), 411;
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment Technology of Metals and Alloys)
In the paper, the effect of voltage increase (from 500 VDC up to 650 VDC) on the structure and chemical composition of the porous coating on titanium made by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation is presented. Phosphates-based coatings enriched with calcium, magnesium, zinc, and copper in electrolyte based on 1 L of 85% concentrated H3PO4, with additions of Ca(NO3)2·4H2O, and Mg(NO3)2∙6H2O, and Zn(NO3)2∙6H2O, and Cu(NO3)2∙3H2O, are described. The morphology and chemical and phase composition are evaluated using SEM, EDS, XRD, XPS, GDOES, and CLSM. Based on these analyses, it was found that PEO coatings are porous and enriched with calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper. They consist mainly of the amorphous phase, which is more visible for higher voltages; this is correlated with an increase in the total PEO coating thickness (the higher the voltage, the thicker the PEO coating). However, for 650 VDC, an amorphous phase and titanium substrate were also recorded, with a signal from Ti2P2O7 crystalline that was not observed for lower voltages. It was also found that all obtained coatings may be divided into three sub-layers, i.e., porous, semiporous, and transitional. View Full-Text
Keywords: Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO); Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO); titanium Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO); Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO); titanium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rokosz, K.; Hryniewicz, T.; Kacalak, W.; Tandecka, K.; Raaen, S.; Gaiaschi, S.; Chapon, P.; Malorny, W.; Matýsek, D.; Dudek, Ł.; Pietrzak, K. Characterization of Porous Phosphate Coatings Enriched with Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper Created on CP Titanium Grade 2 by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation. Metals 2018, 8, 411.

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