Next Article in Journal
W-1% La2O3 Submitted to a Single Laser Pulse: Effect of Particles on Heat Transfer and Surface Morphology
Previous Article in Journal
Liquation Cracking in the Heat-Affected Zone of IN738 Superalloy Weld
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Metals 2018, 8(6), 388;

Impurity Effects in Electroplated-Copper Solder Joints

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
Innovation and Development Center of Sustainable Agriculture (IDCSA), National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [25710 KB, uploaded 28 May 2018]   |  


Copper (Cu) electroplating is a mature technology, and has been extensively applied in microelectronic industry. With the development of advanced microelectronic packaging, Cu electroplating encounters new challenges for atomic deposition on a non-planar substrate and to deliver good throwing power and uniform deposit properties in a high-aspect-ratio trench. The use of organic additives plays an important role in modulating the atomic deposition to achieve successful metallic coverage and filling, which strongly relies on the adsorptive and chemical interactions among additives on the surface of growing film. However, the adsorptive characteristic of organic additives inevitably results in an incorporation of additive-derived impurities in the electroplated Cu film. The incorporation of high-level impurities originating from the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chlorine ions significantly affects the microstructural evolution of the electroplated Cu film, and the electroplated-Cu solder joints, leading to the formation of undesired voids at the joint interface. However, the addition of bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide (SPS) with a critical concentration suppresses the impurity incorporation and the void formation. In this article, relevant studies were reviewed, and the focus was placed on the effects of additive formula and plating parameters on the impurity incorporation in the electroplated Cu film, and the void formation in the solder joints. View Full-Text
Keywords: electroplating; copper; microstructure; void; impurity electroplating; copper; microstructure; void; impurity

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, H.; Chen, C.-M. Impurity Effects in Electroplated-Copper Solder Joints. Metals 2018, 8, 388.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Metals EISSN 2075-4701 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top