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A Correlation between the Ultimate Shear Stress and the Thickness Affected by Intermetallic Compounds in Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloy–Stainless Steel Joints

1
Laboratoire de Cristallographie et Sciences de Matériaux, Normandie Université, ENSICAEN, CNRS UMR 6508, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen, France
2
Sominex, 13 rue de la Résistance, 14400 Bayeux, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2018, 8(3), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030179
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction Stir Welding and Processing in Alloy Manufacturing)
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Abstract

In this work, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was applied to join a stainless steel 316L and an aluminum alloy 5083. Ranges of rotation and translation speeds of the tool were used to obtain welding samples with different heat input coefficients. Depending on the process parameters, the heat generated by FSW creates thin layers of Al-rich InterMetallic Compound (IMC) mainly composed of FeAl3, identified by energy dispersive spectrometry. Traces of Fe2Al5 were also depicted in some samples by X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Monotonous tensile tests performed on the weld joint show the existence of a maximum mechanical resistance for a judicious choice of rotation and translation speeds. It can be linked to an affected zone of average thickness of 15 µm which encompass the presence of IMC and the chaotic mixing caused by plastic deformation in this area. A thickness of less than 15 µm is not sufficient to ensure a good mechanical resistance of the joint. For a thickness higher than 15 µm, IMC layers become more brittle and less adhesive due to high residual stresses which induces numerous cracks after cooling. This leads to a progressive decrease of the ultimate shear stress supported by the bond. View Full-Text
Keywords: FSW process; aluminum alloy; stainless steel; intermetallic compounds; mechanical strength FSW process; aluminum alloy; stainless steel; intermetallic compounds; mechanical strength
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Picot, F.; Gueydan, A.; Martinez, M.; Moisy, F.; Hug, E. A Correlation between the Ultimate Shear Stress and the Thickness Affected by Intermetallic Compounds in Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloy–Stainless Steel Joints. Metals 2018, 8, 179.

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