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Open AccessArticle

Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Macrosegregation in Continuously Cast Billets

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
College of Metallurgy and Energy, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan 063210, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mohsen Asle Zaeem
Metals 2017, 7(6), 209;
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 14 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
Macrosegregation, serving as a major defect in billets, can severely degrade material homogeneity. Better understanding of the physical characteristics of macrosegregation through numerical simulation could significantly contribute to the segregation control. The main purpose of this study was to predict macrosegregation in continuously cast billets with a newly developed three-dimensional macrosegregation model. The fluid flow, solidification, and solute transport in the entire billet region were solved and analyzed. Flow patterns, revealing a typical melt recirculation at the upper region of mold and thermosolutal convection at the secondary cooling zone, significantly affect the solidification and solute distribution. The solute redistribution occurring with thermosolutal convection at the solidification front contributes significantly to continued macrosegregation as solidification proceeds. The results of this study show that the equilibrium partition coefficient is mostly responsible for the magnitude of macrosegregation, while comparison between solute P and S indicated that diffusion coefficients also have some amount of influence. Typical macrosegregation patterns containing a positively segregated peak at the centerline and negatively segregated minima at either side were obtained via the proposed three-dimensional macrosegregation model, which validated by the measured surface temperatures and segregation degree. View Full-Text
Keywords: three-dimensional; simulation; flow pattern; solidification; macrosegregation; billet three-dimensional; simulation; flow pattern; solidification; macrosegregation; billet
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dong, Q.; Zhang, J.; Yin, Y.; Wang, B. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Macrosegregation in Continuously Cast Billets. Metals 2017, 7, 209.

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