Thermal-Structural Characteristics of Multi-Layer Vacuum-Insulated Pipe for the Transfer of Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen
2. Thermal-Structural Analysis Procedure for a Multi-Layer Vacuum Insulation Pipeline
2.1. Thermal-Structural Analysis Procedure
2.2. Multi-Layer Vacuum Insulation Pipeline
3. Mechanical Properties of Steel at Cryogenic Temperature
3.1. Experimental Apparatus and Specimen Description
3.2. Experimental Results
3.3. Material Model
4. Numerical Investigation
4.1. Heat-Transfer Analysis under Cryogenic Conditions
4.1.1. Modelling of Heat Transfer Analysis
4.1.2. Analysis Procedure
- Heat transfer between LH2 and the inner pipe: it was assumed that the surface of the inner pipe in contact with LH2 had the same temperature as the LH2.
- Heat transfer between the inner pipes: the temperature was calculated according to the thickness of pipe and the insulation, using the thermal conductivity coefficient of the pipe and the insulation.
- Heat transfer between the outer pipe and the external environment (ambient temperature): it was assumed that the surface of the outer pipe in contact with the external environment had the same temperature as the ambient air.
4.1.3. Results of Heat Transfer Analysis
4.2. Structural Response Analysis under Cryogenic Conditions
4.2.1. Methodology of Structural Response Analysis
4.2.2. Results of Structural Response Analysis
- Thermal-structural design analysis methods were applied for examining an MVIP in an LH2 fuel-supply system for ships. These analysis methods can be useful for the design of an MVIP.
- A series of tensile tests was conducted at various temperatures, encompassing room and cryogenic temperatures, to understand the mechanical characteristics of the target materials. From the results, a formula for yield-stress curve prediction was derived, incorporating a modified yield stress vs. temperature relationship.
- When performing heat transfer and structural response analyses of MVIPs, the dependence of thermal and mechanical properties on cryogenic temperatures should be considered. In this study, the mechanical properties obtained through tensile tests were used.
- The results of heat transfer analysis confirmed that heat is transmitted through the inner supporting member, and the insulation of the inner supporting member should be considered in the pipe design.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Type||Thickness from Inner Plate on Inner Pipe (mm)|
|Material||Standard||Base Member||Width (mm)||Thickness (mm)||Gauge Length (mm)|
|316L||JIS G4305 ||Sheet||25||1.25||50|
|316/316L||ASTM A409M ||Pipe (4″ 10 S)|
(ASME 36.16 M)
|Material||C Max.||Mn Max.||P Max.||S Max.||Si Max.||Ni||Cr||Mo||Standard|
|SUS316||0.08||2.00||0.045||0.030||1.00||10.0||16.0~18.0||2.00~3.00||JIS G4305 |
|TP316||~14.0||ASTM A409M |
|SUS316L||0.030||12.0||JIS G4305 |
|TP316L||0.035||10.0||ASTM A409M |
|Material (Source)||Temperature (°C)||Yield Stress (MPa)||Tensile Stress (MPa)||Fracture Strain (m/m)|
|Type||Specific Heat (J/kg·K)||Thermal Conductivity (W/mK)||Thermal Expansion Coefficient|
|Pipe (TP316L)||500||14.6||1.28 × 10−5|
|500||14.6||1.37 × 10−5|
|Support cap (FRP)||787||1.1||3.53 × 10−5|
|Bottom surface of pipe support||Ux, Uy, Uz = 1 and Rx, Ry, Rz = 0|
|Edges in the y-direction||Uy = 1 and Ux, Uz, Rx, Ry, Rz = 0|
|Edges in the x-direction||Ux = 1 and Uy, Uz, Rx, Ry, Rz = 0|
|Component||Temperature (°C)||Density (kg/m3)||Elastic Modulus (MPa)||Yield Stress (from Equation (1)) (MPa)||Poisson’s Ratio|
|Inner Support Interval||Maximum Value|
|Deflection (m)||Von Mises Stress (MPa)||Plastic Strain|
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Kim, J.H.; Park, D.K.; Kim, T.J.; Seo, J.K. Thermal-Structural Characteristics of Multi-Layer Vacuum-Insulated Pipe for the Transfer of Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen. Metals 2022, 12, 549. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12040549
Kim JH, Park DK, Kim TJ, Seo JK. Thermal-Structural Characteristics of Multi-Layer Vacuum-Insulated Pipe for the Transfer of Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen. Metals. 2022; 12(4):549. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12040549Chicago/Turabian Style
Kim, Jeong Hwan, Dae Kyeom Park, Tae Jin Kim, and Jung Kwan Seo. 2022. "Thermal-Structural Characteristics of Multi-Layer Vacuum-Insulated Pipe for the Transfer of Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen" Metals 12, no. 4: 549. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12040549