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Article

Structural Characterization of Ion Nitrided 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel: Influence of Treatment Temperature and Time

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Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34437, Turkey
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Krzysztof Rokosz
Metals 2022, 12(2), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12020306
Received: 21 January 2022 / Revised: 7 February 2022 / Accepted: 8 February 2022 / Published: 10 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering of Metals and Alloys)
The ion nitriding behavior of AISI 316L austenite stainless steel was investigated at different nitriding times (2 h, 4 h, and 9 h) and temperatures (450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C). The structural characterization has been assessed by several considerations which can be listed: (i) the evaluation of phase distribution through Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns and accompanying peak fitting process, (ii) hardness profile and related nitride layer thickness by microhardness and microscopic measurements, and (iii) displacement measurements to assess the residual stress accumulation. The diffusion of nitrogen atomic species into the sample surface caused a transformation of the γ phase matrix into an expanded austenite (γN) phase, which is recognized with its high hardness and wear resistance. Furthermore, depending on the nitriding condition, chromium nitride (Cr1-2N) and iron nitride (ε-Fe2-3N and γ′-Fe4N) phases were detected, which can be detrimental to the corrosion resistance of the 316L austenite stainless steel. The γN phase was observed in all nitriding conditions, resulting in a significant increase in the surface hardness. However, decomposition of the γN phase with an increase in nitriding temperature eventually altered the surface hardness distribution in the nitriding layer. Considering the phase-type and distribution with the consequent hardness characteristics in the nitride layer, to our best knowledge, this is the first report in which an ion-nitriding temperature of 500 °C (higher than 450 °C) and time of 9 h can be proposed as ideal processing parameters leading to optimal phase composition and hardness distribution for 316L austenite stainless steels particularly for the applications requiring a combination of both wear and corrosion resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: 316L stainless steel; ion nitriding; phase composition; nitride layer; surface hardness 316L stainless steel; ion nitriding; phase composition; nitride layer; surface hardness
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gokcekaya, O.; Ergun, C.; Gulmez, T.; Nakano, T.; Yilmaz, S. Structural Characterization of Ion Nitrided 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel: Influence of Treatment Temperature and Time. Metals 2022, 12, 306. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12020306

AMA Style

Gokcekaya O, Ergun C, Gulmez T, Nakano T, Yilmaz S. Structural Characterization of Ion Nitrided 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel: Influence of Treatment Temperature and Time. Metals. 2022; 12(2):306. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12020306

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gokcekaya, Ozkan, Celaletdin Ergun, Turgut Gulmez, Takayoshi Nakano, and Safak Yilmaz. 2022. "Structural Characterization of Ion Nitrided 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel: Influence of Treatment Temperature and Time" Metals 12, no. 2: 306. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12020306

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