The Dependence of the Strength of a Carbon Fiber/Aluminum Matrix Composite on the Interface Shear Strength between the Matrix and Fiber
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Production of a Composite Carbon–Aluminum Wire
2.2. Determination of Mechanical Properties
2.3. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Elemental Analysis
2.4. X-ray Diffraction Analysis
2.5. Strength of the Interface between the Matrix and the Fiber
3.2. Fiber Surface
3.3. Strength and the Fracture Energy
4.2. Fiber Surface
4.3. Strength and the Fracture Energy
5. Numerical Calculations
5.1. Expression of the σ* Curve
5.2. Expression of the σc Curve
- Taking the example of a composite wire with an Al-25% Sn alloy matrix reinforced with carbon fiber, the dependence of the bending strength on the shear strength of the interface between the matrix and the fiber was determined. For this purpose, a series of composite wire specimens were obtained and subjected to heat treatment at temperatures from 300 to 600 °C. An analysis of the microstructure of the composite wire in an initial state and after heat treatment showed that there were almost no changes that could affect the strength of the composite.
- The examination of the surface of the carbon fiber extracted from the composite in an initial state and after heat treatment showed that the fiber in the initial state almost did not differ from the fiber in the delivered state. The fiber from the composite treated at 300 °C had a rougher surface. A further increase in the treatment temperature led to the formation of aluminum carbide crystals on the fiber surface, the size and number of which increased with increasing temperature.
- The study of the fracture surfaces and the comparison with the results of the investigation of the fiber surface showed that the emergence of carbide crystals at the interface led to a decrease in the length of the pulled-out part of the fiber. This explicitly indicated a relation with an increase in the strength of the interface. The evaluation of the work of fracture of the composite with different strengths of the interface between the matrix and the fiber demonstrated that as the strength of the interface increased, the work of fracture decreased, due to the premature fracture of the composite through crack propagation in one plane. In the case of weak interfaces, the trajectory of crack propagation is not in one plane, which leads to an increase in the fracture work.
- The effect of the shear strength of the interface between the matrix and the fiber on the strength, the modulus of elasticity, and the nature of the composite fracture was studied. The highest bending strength of 2450 MPa was observed for composite wire samples with the lowest interface shear strength. With an increase in the shear strength of the interface, a decrease in the composite wire strength below 900 MPa was observed. Along with the strength, as the shear strength of the interface increased, the flexural modulus also decreased, from 190 to 150 GPa.
- Based on the experimental data, as well as the refinement of the mixture rule according to the Weibull distribution and the estimation of the critical stress of crack propagation according to the Griffith–Orowan–Irwin concept, a numerical assessment of the dependence of the composite strength on the shear strength of the interface was made. On the basis of this, the critical shear strength was calculated, at which the greatest strength of the composite was achieved, the values being τcr = 107 MPa and σmax = 2675 MPa, respectively. It has been shown that the contribution of the work of overcoming the friction force to the total work of fracture at relatively small values of shear strength can be several times greater than the total contribution of all other types of energy. This indicates that a composite with weak interfaces can remain stable even after the onset of plastic deformation of the matrix and the breakage of some of the fibers in the bulk of the material.
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Conflicts of Interest
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Galyshev, S.; Atanov, B. The Dependence of the Strength of a Carbon Fiber/Aluminum Matrix Composite on the Interface Shear Strength between the Matrix and Fiber. Metals 2022, 12, 1753. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12101753
Galyshev S, Atanov B. The Dependence of the Strength of a Carbon Fiber/Aluminum Matrix Composite on the Interface Shear Strength between the Matrix and Fiber. Metals. 2022; 12(10):1753. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12101753Chicago/Turabian Style
Galyshev, Sergei, and Bulat Atanov. 2022. "The Dependence of the Strength of a Carbon Fiber/Aluminum Matrix Composite on the Interface Shear Strength between the Matrix and Fiber" Metals 12, no. 10: 1753. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12101753