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Article

A New Added-Value Application for Steel Wire Drawing Mill Scale Waste in Stoneware Ceramic Products

1
Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Grestel—Produtos Cerâmicos S.A, Zona Industrial de Vagos—Lote 78, 3840-385 Vagos, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leszek Adam Dobrzanski
Metals 2021, 11(4), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11040661
Received: 17 March 2021 / Revised: 12 April 2021 / Accepted: 15 April 2021 / Published: 18 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Characterization of Metal Containing Wastes)
Mill scale (MS) is a iron-rich waste generated in the wire drawing process with high iron content and is still mainly disposed in landfills. The scientific community has been studied its use in other applications such as pigments, concretes, among others. This work aims to study a new added-value application for MS—the development of coloured ceramic pastes. For this purpose, the influence of the added amount (0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 wt.%), the pre-treatment (milling + sieving at 212 μμm), the maximum firing temperature (from 1043 to 1165 °C) and the type of furnace (laboratory/industrial) were analysed on the sample’s characteristics. A dark grey stoneware product was obtained through the incorporation of 10 wt.% of MS and leaching tests conducted at pilot scale with cups confirmed its immobilization in the ceramic matrix. Furthermore, it was proved that the firing temperature can be reduced by about 100 °C without affecting the specimen’s characteristics. This reduction leads to a considerable decrease in the energy consumption upon firing, inducing economic and environmental advantages. Therefore, this work provides a new added-value application for MS and contributes to the reduction of virgin raw materials consumption and development of more sustainable stoneware products. View Full-Text
Keywords: mill scale; waste valorization; stoneware ceramics; circular economy; industrial symbiosis mill scale; waste valorization; stoneware ceramics; circular economy; industrial symbiosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vilarinho, I.S.; Lopes, A.L.; Carneiro, J.; Pinto, C.; Labrincha, J.A.; Seabra, M.P. A New Added-Value Application for Steel Wire Drawing Mill Scale Waste in Stoneware Ceramic Products. Metals 2021, 11, 661. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11040661

AMA Style

Vilarinho IS, Lopes AL, Carneiro J, Pinto C, Labrincha JA, Seabra MP. A New Added-Value Application for Steel Wire Drawing Mill Scale Waste in Stoneware Ceramic Products. Metals. 2021; 11(4):661. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11040661

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vilarinho, Inês Silveirinha, Ana Luisa Lopes, Jorge Carneiro, Carlos Pinto, João António Labrincha, and Maria Paula Seabra. 2021. "A New Added-Value Application for Steel Wire Drawing Mill Scale Waste in Stoneware Ceramic Products" Metals 11, no. 4: 661. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11040661

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