Next Article in Journal
Effect of Grain Size on the Friction-Induced Martensitic Transformation and Tribological Properties of 304 Austenite Stainless Steel
Previous Article in Journal
Assessing Microstructure-Local Mechanical Properties in Friction Stir Welded 6082-T6 Aluminum Alloy
Open AccessArticle

Scale Formation on HSLA Steel during Continuous Casting Part II: The Effect of Surface Conditions

1
Department of Engineering Science and Mathematics, Materials Science, Luleå University of Technology, SE 97 187 Luleå, Sweden
2
Casting and Flow Simulation Group, Process Metallurgy Department, SWERIM AB, Aronstorpsvägen 1, SE-97437 Luleå, Sweden
3
Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Brinellvägen 23, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
4
SSAB Europe Oy Raahe Works, Rautaruukintie 155, PL 93, 92101 Raahe, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2020, 10(9), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091245
Received: 8 August 2020 / Revised: 28 August 2020 / Accepted: 10 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
The present research addresses the effect of surface condition on oxide scale formation at high temperatures such as those experienced during secondary cooling in Continuous Casting. Tests were carried out in clean, as-cast and surfaces covered with casting powder to replicate the oxidation/re-oxidation after the mould. Specimens oxidized at 1000, 1100 and 1200 °C under dry air and water-vapour conditions revealed that the oxide scale formation is strongly influenced by temperature, environmental and surface conditions. The oxide scale thickness increases with temperature alterations in the surface (e.g., as-cast and covered with powder) where oxides and carbonates from the casting powder accelerate oxidation kinetics leading to thick and unstable scales. A high amount of carbon is present on surfaces covered with casting powder where it diffuses through the oxide scale forming CO and CO2 which lead to stress accumulation that makes scales prone to defects such as pores, voids and micro-cracks. Ultimately, if wüstite remains attached to the steel surface or inside oscillation marks, it may disturb heat transfer during secondary cooling which has deep industrial implications for crack formation and overall casting yield. Therefore, accurate insights on scale type and growth mechanisms could lead to accurate control of its formation during casting. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxide scale; water vapour; surface conditions; continuous casting; casting powder oxide scale; water vapour; surface conditions; continuous casting; casting powder
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Pineda Huitron, R.M.; Ramírez López, P.E.; Vuorinen, E.; Nazen Jalali, P.; Pelcastre, L.; Kärkkäinen, M. Scale Formation on HSLA Steel during Continuous Casting Part II: The Effect of Surface Conditions. Metals 2020, 10, 1245.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop