Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Selective Laser Melting Manufactured IN 625
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Arc Length Adjustment on Weld Bead Formation and Droplet Transfer in Pulsed GMAW Based on Datum Current Time
Previous Article in Special Issue
Microstructure Evolution of Selective Laser Melted Inconel 718: Influence of High Heating Rates
Open AccessArticle

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Gas/Powder Flow for Different LMD Nozzles

1
Laboratoire PIMM, UMR 8006 ENSAM-CNRS-CNAM, HESAM Université, 151 boulevard de l’hôpital, 75013 Paris, France
2
Centre des Matériaux, Mines Paristech, CNRS UMR 7633, 63–65 rue Henry-Auguste Desbrueres, 91103 Evry, France
3
Safran Additive Manufacturing, Technology platform of Safran Tech, Rue des Jeunes Bois, Châteaufort, 78114 Magny-Les-Hameaux, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2020, 10(5), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10050667
Received: 20 April 2020 / Revised: 16 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Metals with Lasers)
The Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process is an additive manufacturing method, which generates 3D structures through the interaction of a laser beam and a gas/powder stream. The stream diameter, surface density and focal plan position affect the size, efficiency and regularity of the deposit tracks. Therefore, a precise knowledge of the gas/powder streams characteristics is essential to control the process and improve its reliability and reproducibly for industrial applications. This paper proposes multiple experimental techniques, such as gas pressure measurement, optical and weighting methods, to analyze the gas and particle velocity, the powder stream diameter, its focal plan position and density. This was carried out for three nozzle designs and multiple gas and powder flow rates conditions. The results reveal that (1) the particle stream follows a Gaussian distribution while the gas velocity field is closer to a top hat one; (2) axial, carrier and shaping gas flow significantly impact the powder stream’s focal plan position; (3) only shaping gas, powder flow rates and nozzle design impact the powder stream diameter. 2D axisymmetric models of the gas and powder streams with RANS turbulent model are then performed on each of the three nozzles and highlight good agreements with experimental results but an over-estimation of the gas velocity by pressure measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: laser metal deposition; laser cladding; coaxial nozzle; gas flow; powder stream; simulation; experimental setup laser metal deposition; laser cladding; coaxial nozzle; gas flow; powder stream; simulation; experimental setup
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ferreira, E.; Dal, M.; Colin, C.; Marion, G.; Gorny, C.; Courapied, D.; Guy, J.; Peyre, P. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Gas/Powder Flow for Different LMD Nozzles. Metals 2020, 10, 667.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop