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Characterization of High-Strength Packaging Steels: Obtaining Material Data for Precise Finite Element Process Modelling

1
Thyssenkrupp Rasselstein GmbH, 52262 Andernach, Germany
2
Institute of Metal Forming, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2020, 10(12), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10121683
Received: 20 November 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 16 December 2020
The steadily increasing demand for downgauging to reduce costs in packaging steel applications requires the development of high-strength packaging steel grades to meet strength requirements. At the same time, the demand for a simulative, computer-aided layout of industrial forming processes is growing to reduce costs in tool constructions for downgauging manners. As part of this work, different high-strength packaging steels were characterized for use in a finite element based process layout and validated using application-oriented experiments. Due to a low hardening rate and the occurrence of Lüders bands, high-strength packaging steels show a low amount of elongation in tensile tests, while for other stress states higher degrees of deformation are possible. Thus, common extrapolation methods fail to reproduce the flow curve of high-strength packaging steels. Therefore, a new approach to extrapolate the flow curve of high-strength packaging steels is presented using the tensile test and bulge test data together with a combined Swift–Voce hardening law. Furthermore, it is shown that the use of complex anisotropic yield locus models such as Yld2000-2d is necessary for high-strength packaging steels in order to be able to precisely simulate application-oriented loads in between plane strain and biaxial tension in validation experiments. Finally, the benefit of a material selection process for packaging steel applications guided by finite element simulations based on precisely characterized material behaviour is demonstrated. View Full-Text
Keywords: packaging steel; finite element simulation; flow curve extrapolation packaging steel; finite element simulation; flow curve extrapolation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Knieps, F.; Liebscher, B.; Moldovan, I.; Köhl, M.; Lohmar, J. Characterization of High-Strength Packaging Steels: Obtaining Material Data for Precise Finite Element Process Modelling. Metals 2020, 10, 1683. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10121683

AMA Style

Knieps F, Liebscher B, Moldovan I, Köhl M, Lohmar J. Characterization of High-Strength Packaging Steels: Obtaining Material Data for Precise Finite Element Process Modelling. Metals. 2020; 10(12):1683. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10121683

Chicago/Turabian Style

Knieps, Fabian; Liebscher, Benjamin; Moldovan, Ioana; Köhl, Manuel; Lohmar, Johannes. 2020. "Characterization of High-Strength Packaging Steels: Obtaining Material Data for Precise Finite Element Process Modelling" Metals 10, no. 12: 1683. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10121683

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