Assessment of How House Ownership Shapes Health Outcomes in Urban Ghana
1.1. Housing Issues in Ghana
“In order to meet the housing challenge in the country, government aims to establish a sustainable housing process which will eventually enable all Ghanaians to secure housing with secure tenure, within a safe and healthy environment and viable communities in a manner that will make a positive contribution to a democratic and integrated society, within the shortest possible time frame”., (p. 10)
1.2. Health Concerns
1.3. Pension Policy
1.4. Power Relations
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Sample Selection and Size
2.2. Research Instruments
2.3. Data Collection
2.4. Data Analysis
3.2. Workers’ Old Age Oriented Expectations
- National health insurance (NHI)—the registration and renewal of NHI is free for people aged 70+.
- Property and sewerage rebate, which offers a 30% property rebate for people aged 60+ for Tema residents.
3.3. House Ownership
I have acquired an apartment. I also have a house so that when I retire, I don’t have to struggle with issues of accommodation. This, I learnt from my father. It will make life easy for me.(Near-retired male)
I have a 2 bedroom house that I intend to live in, when I finally retire.(Near-retired female)
I acquired a house long before I retired about 10 years ago. I live in it with my children. At least, I have a roof over my head.(Retired female)
I live in my own house with my wife and children. Now that I have retired, I have a sound mind because of this property. If the rest of my children marry, the family size will only reduce but it still will remain intact in this house.(Retired male)
My late husband’s organization made him an offer regarding the purchase of the residence we were occupying. He discussed the issue with me and I encouraged him to purchase the apartment. He rather told me that he intended to build a house in his hometown in another region other than our region of residence - the Volta Region of Ghana. I vehemently detested that. As a result, I threatened him that if he does not buy the house on offer for us to stay in and he goes building in his hometown, when he retires, my children and I will not follow him to his hometown. He will go alone. You still have the choice of purchasing the property, where we have spent most of our adult lives, I said. However, he did not mind me. He rather continued with his diabolical plan of building elsewhere. A few years after that he retired, the Company’s Estate Unit notified him to vacate the residential premises. So, we moved bags and baggage out of the flat. He decided that we go to the village. I blatantly refused. Rather, I reminded him of what I told him earlier. It became a whole argument that brought in other people to intervene. But I did not budge. He packed off to the village. My five children and I rented a house here in Tema and relocated there. He on the other hand, got to the village alright but alone without the children and me. Later we heard that his health condition took a down turn with hypertension and diabetes. With time, his health deteriorated and he died as a result of that, just after two years of retirement.(Retired female)
3.4. Provision of End-of-Service Benefits
- The core constituents of TDC’s ESB system include medical care and a housing scheme that comprises plots of land and houses.
- Workers of SSNIT also enjoy employers’ retirement benefits in the form of medical care till death, house provision or housing loan.
3.5. Linkage between House Ownership and Health Outcomes
I have always considered it is degrading in industrialized societies; that old people are put in old people’s homes where they are visited by their children from time to time. We must desist from creating or introducing such life’s dead ends into Ghanaian life. For me, the day we adopt such a culturally humiliating system will be gloomy one indeed. Let us continue to keep the aged in their homes with their children and grandchildren.(p. 19)
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|Values||df||Asymp. Sig (2-Sided)|
|N of valid Cases||442|
|Tests||Values||Degrees of Freedom||Asymp. Sig. (2-Sided)|
|N of Valid Cases||442|
|Educational level||No-formal education||24||5.4|
|Sector of work||Formal||221||50|
|Age Category||Yes||No||Cannot Tell|
|Plots of land||•|
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Dovie, D.A. Assessment of How House Ownership Shapes Health Outcomes in Urban Ghana. Societies 2019, 9, 43. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9020043
Dovie DA. Assessment of How House Ownership Shapes Health Outcomes in Urban Ghana. Societies. 2019; 9(2):43. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9020043Chicago/Turabian Style
Dovie, Delali A. 2019. "Assessment of How House Ownership Shapes Health Outcomes in Urban Ghana" Societies 9, no. 2: 43. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc9020043