Prospective and cross-sectional studies have used pre-season isokinetic dynamometry strength and endurance measurements of shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) to determine if they can be correlated to injury. However, to date, no review has provided a synthesis of all available literature on this topic. The aim of this systematic review was to identify isokinetic dynamometry studies that assess shoulder IR and ER strength and endurance in the overhead athletic population in relation to shoulder injury. Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and SportDiscus) were searched through September 2019 using pre-determined search terms. Both prospective and cross-sectional studies were included in this review. Studies were assessed for quality using either Appraisal Tool for Cross-sectional Studies (AXIS) or Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Data on outcome measures of strength and endurance peak torque (PT) and ratios (ER:IR) were extracted and further analysed using a best evidence synthesis approach. A total of 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. Conflicting evidence was found when reviewing all studies without differentiating by study type. Prospective study designs revealed strong evidence that reduced IR endurance and reduced strength ratios are predictive of shoulder injury. Cross-sectional literature showed only conflicting and limited evidence for all outcome measures. At this stage, more research is needed in individual sporting populations using prospective cohort designs.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited