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Open AccessArticle

Towards a de facto Nonlinear Periodization: Extending Nonlinearity from Programming to Periodizing

1
Center for Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
2
Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal
3
Instituto de Telecomunicações, Delegação da Covilhã, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
4
Superior School of Hotel and Tourism, Porto Polytechnic Institute, 4480-876 Porto, Portugal
5
Instituto Universitário da Maia (ISMAI), 4475-690 Maia, Portugal
6
Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2020, 8(8), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8080110
Received: 22 June 2020 / Revised: 22 July 2020 / Accepted: 3 August 2020 / Published: 8 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Periodization and Programming in Sports)
Planning is paramount in sport. Among different philosophical approaches to planning, periodization is a highly popular concept that refers to structured training periods with ensuing programs encompassing moments of progressively-loaded training, followed by recovery; it is normally deemed paramount to optimize adaptations and performance. While planning provides generic guidelines, periodization refers to the sequencing/ordering of training periods to enforce a given plan, therefore referring to longer temporal scales, and programming refers to more micro-scale aspects. In fact, similar periodization schemes may implement distinct programming strategies. Literature on the topic has used the linear and nonlinear terms to describe the content of periodized programs. However, these concepts have not been clearly defined in the literature, which may lead to inaccurate and misleading interpretations. Moreover, nonlinear periodization is usually using nonlinear programming, but with pre-stipulated sequencing of the training periods. Finally, it can be argued that nonlinearity has been an integral part of periodization since its inception, at least theoretically. In this essay, the literature was critically reviewed to better understand the validity of the linearity and nonlinearity concepts as applied in currently proposed periodization models. In addition, a novel approach for a de facto nonlinear periodization is presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise prescription; periodization; nonlinearity; scientific definitions; programming exercise prescription; periodization; nonlinearity; scientific definitions; programming
MDPI and ACS Style

Afonso, J.; Clemente, F.M.; Ribeiro, J.; Ferreira, M.; Fernandes, R.J. Towards a de facto Nonlinear Periodization: Extending Nonlinearity from Programming to Periodizing. Sports 2020, 8, 110.

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