3.1. Biometric Measures and Training History
Age and sum of skinfolds were most likely
higher, respectively, in the MT groups compared to the YG group (Table 1
). Differences in FM and body fat percentage between the YG and MT groups were very likely
, while mass and squat 1RM were unclear
. Age and FFM differences between the MT and MU groups were likely moderate
, whilst all other biometric characteristics demonstrated unclear
The MT group had most likely
regularly resistance trained for longer than the YG (ES 2.29, CI 1.46, 3.13; Table 2
), though their training was associated with a lower weekly frequency (χ2
= 32.5, p
< 0.05) and shorter session duration (χ2
= 36.4, p
< 0.05). Moreover, the MT group typically chose resistance training for strength and fat loss, whereas the YG trained for strength (χ2
= 31.8, p
There were very likely large
differences in sports participation for the MT compared to the YG and MU, respectively, with MT having more years compared to the YG (ES 1.47, CI 0.66, 2.28) and less than the MU group (ES 1.17, CI 0.36, 1.98; Table 3
). No relationship (p
> 0.05) was observed between groups for weekly frequency, session duration, or type of sport played.
3.3. Indirect Markers of Muscle Damage
At Pre, differences in muscle soreness between the YG and MT and MT and MU were unclear
(ES 0.00, CI −0.81, 0.81 and ES 0.42, CI −0.39, 1.22, respectively; Figure 2
). When the three groups were combined, perceived muscle soreness demonstrated most likely very large
(ES 4.20, CI 3.74, 4.65) increases at 24 h and, likewise (ES 1.82, CI 1.36, 2.27), at 72 h after muscle-damaging exercise. Between-group differences for the YG and MT comparison were unclear
at 24 and 72 h after muscle-damaging exercise. Increases in muscle soreness were likely moderately
higher in the MU group compared to the MT group at 24 and 72 h.
Differences in CK activity at Pre for YG and MT and MT and MU comparisons were unclear
(ES −0.41, CI −1.21, 0.40 and ES −0.44, CI −1.25, 0.38, respectively; Figure 3
). The increase in plasma CK activity for the three groups combined was very likely moderate
(ES 1.19, CI 0.73, 1.64) and likely small
(ES 0.59, CI 0.13, 1.05) at 24 and 72 h, respectively, compared to Pre. Differences in plasma CK activity over time were unclear
between the YG and MT groups. Plasma CK activity was likely moderately
higher in the MU group compared to the MT group at 24 h, though differences between the groups were unclear
at 72 h.
At Pre, differences in MVC force were likely moderate
for the YG compared to MT (ES −0.80, CI −1.61, 0.01) and MT compared to MU (ES 0.27, CI −0.56, 1.10), respectively (Figure 4
). MVC force had very likely moderate
(ES −0.71, CI −1.16, −0.26) and likely small
(ES −0.39, CI −0.84, 0.06) decreases at 24 and 72 h after muscle-damaging exercise. Likely
and very likely moderate
reductions in MVC force were observed in the MT group compared to the YG groups at 24 and 72 h, respectively. At 24 and 72 h, differences between the MT and MU groups were unclear.
Differences in VA at Pre were unclear
for YG compared to MT (ES 0.03, CI −0.77, 0.84) and MT compared to MU (ES 0.07, CI −0.76, 0.90; Figure 5
). When all groups were combined VA decreased over time, with values at 24 and 72 h demonstrating very likely moderate
decreases (ES −0.87, CI −1.33, −0.41 and ES −0.88, CI −1.34, −0.41, respectively). Differences between groups were unclear
at all time-points.
Higher mean resting doublet values for the YG were likely moderate
compared to the MT (ES −0.96 CI −1.77, 0.14; Figure 6
). Similarly, higher values for MU (ES 0.95, CI 0.12, 1.78) were likely moderate
compared to the MT group. Mean doublet values were likely small
at 24 and 72 h, respectively, (ES −0.52, CI −0.98, −0.06 and ES −0.04, CI −0.50, 0.42, respectively) after squatting exercise. Differences in resting doublet were very likely moderate
and likely moderate
between YG and MT groups at 24 and 72 h, respectively. MT and MU comparisons were unclear
at 24 and 72 h.
3.4. Peak Power during Squat Exercise
a very likely moderate
lower peak power was at 20% and 80% 1RM (ES −1.03, CI −1.84, −0.22 and ES −1.03, CI −1.84, −0.21, respectively) was observed in the MT compared to YG (Table 4
). Differences at Pre for MT and MU were most likely very large
for 20% and 80% 1RM (ES −3.34, CI −4.18, −2.50 and ES −0.47, CI −1.28, 0.33, respectively). When all groups were combined, peak power for 20% and 80% 1RM demonstrated possibly small
(ES −0.25, CI −0.71, 0.20 and ES −0.36, CI −0.81, 0.09, respectively) and unclear
(ES −0.23, CI −0.69, 0.22 and ES −0.19, CI −0.64, 0.26, respectively) decrements at 24 and 72 h, respectively. For 20% and 80% 1RM, between group differences at 24 and 72 h were very likely moderate
between the YG and MT groups. Similarly, reductions in 20% 1RM peak power at 24 and 72 h for the MT vs. MU comparison were very likely moderate.
Peak power at 80% 1RM illustrated likely moderate
and very likely large
differences at 24 and 72 h, respectively.