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Nutrition and Supplementation in Soccer

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Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo - Escola Superior de Desporto e Lazer, Viana do Castelo 4960-320, Portugal
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Benfica LAB, Sport Lisboa e Benfica, Lisbon 1500-313, Portugal
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Instituto Politécnico de Leiria - Escola Superior de Saúde, Leiria 2411-901, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Joel T. Cramer and Filipe Manuel Clemente
Sports 2017, 5(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5020028
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance in Soccer)
Contemporary elite soccer features increased physical demands during match-play, as well as a larger number of matches per season. Now more than ever, aspects related to performance optimization are highly regarded by both players and soccer coaches. Here, nutrition takes a special role as most elite teams try to provide an adequate diet to guarantee maximum performance while ensuring a faster recovery from matches and training exertions. It is currently known that manipulation and periodization of macronutrients, as well as sound hydration practices, have the potential to interfere with training adaptation and recovery. A careful monitoring of micronutrient status is also relevant to prevent undue fatigue and immune impairment secondary to a deficiency status. Furthermore, the sensible use of evidence-based dietary supplements may also play a role in soccer performance optimization. In this sense, several nutritional recommendations have been issued. This detailed and comprehensive review addresses the most relevant and up-to-date nutritional recommendations for elite soccer players, covering from macro and micronutrients to hydration and selected supplements in different contexts (daily requirements, pre, peri and post training/match and competition). View Full-Text
Keywords: soccer; football; nutrition; supplementation; recovery; periodization; exercise; food; match soccer; football; nutrition; supplementation; recovery; periodization; exercise; food; match
MDPI and ACS Style

Oliveira, C.C.; Ferreira, D.; Caetano, C.; Granja, D.; Pinto, R.; Mendes, B.; Sousa, M. Nutrition and Supplementation in Soccer. Sports 2017, 5, 28.

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