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Insects 2017, 8(2), 45;

Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Conservation

Blue Imago LLC 1973 Rule Ave., Maryland Heights, MO 63043, USA
Academic Editor: Jaret C. Daniels
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Butterfly Conservation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [244 KB, uploaded 25 April 2017]


Speyeria (Nymphalidae) are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants). Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral “disturbed” successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts. View Full-Text
Keywords: Speyeria; conservation; habitats; life history; violets; populations; climate Speyeria; conservation; habitats; life history; violets; populations; climate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Sims, S.R. Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Conservation. Insects 2017, 8, 45.

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