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Insects 2016, 7(4), 71;

Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

USDA-ARS, Crop Improvement and Protection Unit, Salinas, CA 93905, USA
Department of Vegetable Crops and Weed Science, University of California, Salinas, CA 93905, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Brian T. Forschler
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples. View Full-Text
Keywords: postharvest pest control; quarantine treatment; postharvest quality; Cydia pomonella postharvest pest control; quarantine treatment; postharvest quality; Cydia pomonella

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Liu, Y.-B.; Yang, X.; Simmons, G. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples. Insects 2016, 7, 71.

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