|Aschersonia aleyrodis||Second and third instars on eggplant leaves were sprayed with fungal spores at 1 × 107 conidia/mL.||Mortality:|
Second instar: 71.21%
Third instar: 69.31%
Second instar: 7.93 × 106; third instar: 1.08 × 107; pupae: 1.56 × 107 conidia/mL
LT50: 4.60 days for second instar.
|A. aleyrodis||First, second, and third instars on eggplant were sprayed with spores at 1 × 107 conidia/mL on eggplant leaves.||The survival of first, second, and third nymphal instars was significantly affected.||China|||
|A. aleyrodis||Eggs; first, second, third, fourth instars; and adults on the leaves of soybean were sprayed with 1 × 106 conidia/mL.||The highest mortality (99%) was observed for the first, second, and third instars and the lowest mortality in the adult stage.|
LD50: 6–7 × 106 conidia/mL
LT50: 3.50–3.75 days for nymph stage; 4.50 days for adults.
|A. placenta||First, second, and third instars on tomato were sprayed with 1.5 mL of fungal suspension.||Mortality ranged from 93% to 100%.|
LD50 and LD90 values decreased with time and increased with instar.
LT50 values decreased with conidial concentrations.
|Beauveria bassiana||Eggs and nymphs were sprayed with different concentrations on plant leaves of cotton, tomato, eggplant, and bell pepper.||Most effective isolate (Bb-01) on cotton mortality:|
LC50 value: 2.4 × 107 spores/mL. LT50: lowest on cotton, 5.40 days
|B. bassiana||Nymphs and adults on tomato leaves were sprayed with different formulations of 108 spores/mL.||Reduction of the population over control in formulations:|
|B. bassiana||Eggs and first, second, third, and fourth instars were immersed in 1 mL of conidia suspension for 10 min.||First and second instars were more susceptible than the third and fourth instars. Nymphs were highly susceptible compared to eggs.||Saudi Arabia|||
|B. bassiana||Fourth instars from cucumber, tomato, melon, green pepper, potato, eggplant, marrow, cabbage, bean, and cotton plants were immersed in 1.0 × 107 conidia/mL for 10 s.||Mortality and average survival time after 8 days of inoculation were significantly influenced by the host plants. Mean mortality ranged between 52.3 ± 7.3 for nymphs reared on cotton and 91.8 ± 5.8 for nymphs reared on cucumber.||Spain|||
|B. bassiana||Adult B. tabaci (2–3 days old) on cotton were sprayed with three concentrations (1 × 103, 1 × 105, and 1 × 107 spores/mL) of 1 mL of fungal suspension.||Mortality recorded at the lowest dose (1 × 103 spores/mL) was 11%, while the highest percentage mortality (56%) was recorded at a high dose of 1 × 107 spores/mL, and the recorded natural mortality was only 5%.||Egypt|||
|Isaria spp.||Second, third, and fourth instars were sprayed with spore concentrations in clip-screen cages on sweet potatoes.||LC50 and LT50 values when exposed to 1000 spores/mm2:|
LC50: second instar: 72–118 spores/mm2; third instar: 166–295 spores/mm2; fourth instar: 166–295 spores/mm2
LT50: second instar: 3 days; third instar: 4 days.
|I. fumosoroseus||Eggs and first, second, third, and fourth instars on eggplants were dipped in conidia suspension (1 × 106 conidia/mL) for 2–3 s.||Most effective isolate (UPM isolate) mortality:|
Second instar: 90%
Third instar: 86%
Fourth instar: 89%
LT50: 3.94 to 6.28 days.
|I. fumosoroseus||First, second, and third instars on cucumbers were sprayed with spores at 1 × 107 conidia/mL.||The second instar was the most susceptible life stage with mortality rate at 83% after 7 days of application.||China|||
|I. fumosoroseus||Second instars on eggplants were dipped in five different concentrations (1 × 103,1 × 104,1 × 105,1 × 106,1 × 107 conidia/mL) for 20 s.||LC50 values: 1.10 × 104 conidia/mL after 12 days of treatment.|
At a concentration of 1 × 107 conidia/mL, minimum average longevity and number of progenies produced were 9 days and 10.92 eggs/female, respectively, as compared to 16.3 days and 83.67 eggs/female for the control.
|Lecanicillium lecanii||Second instars on five host plants were sprayed with 107 conidia/mL.||The highest mortality was recorded in all host plants:|
Laboratory conditions: nymphal mortality: >90%
Glasshouse conditions: nymphal mortality: 81%.
|L. lecanii||Toxin emulsion was applied to female adult B. tabaci on the tomato plants.||The toxin reduced the hatching of whitefly eggs, the survival rate of the nymphs, and the emergence and fecundity of the progeny adults.||China|||
|L. muscarium||First, second, third, and fourth instars on tomato and verbena plants were sprayed with a fungal suspension (107 spores/mL).||First and second instar nymphs were more susceptible to L. muscarium than the third and fourth instar nymphs.||United Kingdom|||
|Metarhizium anisopliae||Second instar nymphs were sprayed with 107 spores/mL of three vegetable oil formulations.||The highest mortality was observed with sunflower oil followed by olive oil and maize oil formulations.||Argentina|||
|M. anisopliae||Second instar nymphs on eggplants were dipped into 108 conidia/mL for 10 s.||Mortality caused by two isolates under osmotic conditions was 83.9% and 83.8%.||Malaysia|||
|M. anisopliae||Second and fourth instars on brinjals were sprayed with 2 mL of 107, 105, 103, and 10 conidia/mL.||LC50 value:|
Lowest on second instar, 6.62 × 10 conidia/mL.
LT50: 2.25 days
|M. anisopliae||Second instars on eggplants were dipped into 108 conidia/mL for 10 s.||The highest mortality of 84.3% was observed in the isolate GT3.||Malaysia|||
|B. bassiana, I. fumosorosea, and L. muscarium||Nymphs were sprayed with conidia at 107 conidia/mL (150 conidia/mm2).||All fungi isolates were pathogenic to whitefly nymphs. Isolates of B. bassiana and I. fumosorosea were significantly more virulent than that of L. muscarium, with > 77% nymphal mortalities.||Brazil|||
|B. bassiana, M. anisopliae, and I. fumosorosea||Conidia at 5 × 109 conidia/ha were sprayed on eggs; first, second, third, and fourth instars, and adult B. tabaci on the underside of the leaves to the point of runoff.||There were no significant differences in individual mortality for all life stages between the different strata (the top, middle, and bottom thirds). M. anisopliae was significantly more effective against eggs; first, second, and third instar nymphs; and pupae.||Mexico|||
|B. bassiana and L. lecanii||Nymphs on tomato plants were sprayed with fungal filtrate, conidia, and filtrate + conidia of two fungal strains.||In all the three bioassays, the isolate BB-72 was the most virulent, causing high mortality using all three different concentrations of the two fungal strains tested.||China|||
|M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, and V. lecanii||Three different concentrations (1 × 107, 1 × 108, and 1 × 109 spores/mL) were sprayed onto adult B. tabaci.||The percentage of reduction ranged between 52% and 100% in all concentrations. All the treatments caused 100% mortality with concentrations of 1 × 109 after the sixth day of application.||Egypt|||
|M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, and V. lecanii||Three different concentrations (2 × 103, 2 × 104, and 2 × 105 conidia/mL) were sprayed onto adult B. tabaci.||The percentage of mortality ranged between 80–100% (V. lecanii), 45–75% (B. bassiana), and 45–70% (M. anisopliae) on the seventh day after treatment. The concentration of 2 × 105 conidia/mL was highly toxic under both laboratory and field conditions.||Egypt|||