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Behavioral and Electrophysiological Effects of Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) (Apiales: Apiaceae) Essential Oil and Its Constituents on Nymphal and Adult Bean Bugs, Riptortus clavatus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Alydidae)

1
Department of Forest Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Insects 2020, 11(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11020104
Received: 28 December 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2020 / Accepted: 3 February 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
We investigated the repellent effect of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils on nymphal and adult (male and female) forms of the bean bug, Riptortus clavatus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Alydidae), using a four-arm olfactometer. Among the essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) essential oil showed the strongest repellent activity against the nymphal and adult bean bugs. For female adults, the repellent activity was significantly different between an ajowan oil-treated chamber and an untreated chamber down to a concentration of 14.15 μg/cm2. We also investigated the repellent activity of individual ajowan essential oil constituents. Of the compounds examined, carvacrol and thymol showed the most potent repellent activity against the nymphal and adult bean bugs. Carvacrol and thymol exhibited 73.08% and 70.0% repellent activity for the bean bug nymph at 0.71 and 2.83 μg/cm2, respectively, and 82.6% and 80.7% at 5.66 and 11.32 μg/cm2, respectively, for male adults. Carvacrol and thymol exhibited strong repellent activity against female adult bean bugs down to a concentration of 2.83 μg/cm2. Ajowan essential oil, thymol and carvacrol elicited a negative electroantennogram (EAG) response from adult bean bugs. This could explain the repellent activity of ajowan essential oil and its constituents. Our results indicate that ajowan essential oil and its constituents carvacrol and thymol can be potential candidates as the ‘push’ component in a ‘push-pull’ strategy for bean bug control.
Keywords: repellent activity; ajowan essential oil; carvacrol; thymol; bean bug; Riptortus calvatus; push-pull strategy repellent activity; ajowan essential oil; carvacrol; thymol; bean bug; Riptortus calvatus; push-pull strategy
MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.-C.; Seo, S.-M.; Huh, M.-J.; Kwon, J.-H.; Nam, I.; Park, J.-H.; Park, I.-K. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Effects of Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) (Apiales: Apiaceae) Essential Oil and Its Constituents on Nymphal and Adult Bean Bugs, Riptortus clavatus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Alydidae). Insects 2020, 11, 104.

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