Next Article in Journal
Rainfastness of Insecticides Used to Control Spotted-Wing Drosophila in Tart Cherry Production
Next Article in Special Issue
Cuticular Hydrocarbon Recognition in the Mating Behavior of Two Pissodes Species
Previous Article in Journal
Modeling Potential Habitat for Amblyomma Tick Species in California
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Host Plants Reared under Elevated CO2 Concentrations on the Foraging Behavior of Different Stages of Corn Leaf Aphids Rhopalosiphum maidis
 
 
Article

Parthenogenetic Females of the Stick Insect Clitarchus hookeri Maintain Sexual Traits

1
School of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand
2
School of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(7), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070202
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiochemicals and Insect Behavior)
The New Zealand stick insect Clitarchus hookeri has both sexual and parthenogenetic (all-female) populations. Sexual populations exhibit a scramble competition mating system with distinctive sex roles, where females are signalers and males are searchers, which may lead to differences in the chemical and morphological traits between sexes. Evidence from a range of insect species has shown a decay of sexual traits is common in parthenogenetic lineages, especially those traits related to mate attraction and location, presumably due to their high cost. However, in some cases, sexual traits remain functional, either due to the recent evolution of the parthenogenetic lineage, low cost of maintenance, or because there might be an advantage in maintaining them. We measured morphological and chemical traits of C. hookeri to identify differences between males and females and between females from sexual and parthenogenetic populations. We also tested the ability of males to discriminate between sexual and parthenogenetic females in a laboratory bioassay. Our results show that male C. hookeri has morphological traits that facilitate mobility (smaller body with disproportionately longer legs) and mate detection (disproportionately longer antennae), and adult females release significantly higher amounts of volatile organic compounds than males when this species is sexually active, in accordance with their distinctive sex roles. Although some differences were detected between sexual and parthenogenetic females, the latter appear to maintain copulatory behaviors and chemical signaling. Males were unable to distinguish between sexual and parthenogenetic females, suggesting that there has been little decay in the sexual traits in the parthenogenetic lineage of C. hookeri. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical signals; GC-MS; male choice; morphometrics; parthenogenetic reproduction; scramble competition; sexual reproduction; sexual traits chemical signals; GC-MS; male choice; morphometrics; parthenogenetic reproduction; scramble competition; sexual reproduction; sexual traits
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nakano, M.; Morgan-Richards, M.; Godfrey, A.J.R.; Clavijo McCormick, A. Parthenogenetic Females of the Stick Insect Clitarchus hookeri Maintain Sexual Traits. Insects 2019, 10, 202. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070202

AMA Style

Nakano M, Morgan-Richards M, Godfrey AJR, Clavijo McCormick A. Parthenogenetic Females of the Stick Insect Clitarchus hookeri Maintain Sexual Traits. Insects. 2019; 10(7):202. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070202

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakano, Mari, Mary Morgan-Richards, A. Jonathan R. Godfrey, and Andrea Clavijo McCormick. 2019. "Parthenogenetic Females of the Stick Insect Clitarchus hookeri Maintain Sexual Traits" Insects 10, no. 7: 202. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070202

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop