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Modeling Potential Habitat for Amblyomma Tick Species in California

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool CH64 7TE, UK
Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(7), 201;
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick Surveillance and Tick-borne Diseases)
PDF [3593 KB, uploaded 8 July 2019]


The Amblyomma genus of ticks comprises species that are aggressive human biters and vectors of pathogens. Numerous species in the genus are undergoing rapid range expansion. Amblyomma ticks have occasionally been introduced into California, but as yet, no established populations have been reported in the state. Because California has high ecological diversity and is a transport hub for potentially parasitized humans and animals, the risk of future Amblyomma establishment may be high. We used ecological niche modeling to predict areas in California suitable for four tick species that pose high risk to humans: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma mixtum. We collected presence data in the Americas for each species from the published literature and online databases. Twenty-three climatic and ecological variables were used in a MaxEnt algorithm to predict the distribution of each species. The minimum temperature of the coldest month was an important predictor for all four species due to high mortality of Amblyomma at low temperatures. Areas in California appear to be ecologically suitable for A. americanum, A. maculatum, and A. cajennense, but not A. mixtum. These findings could inform targeted surveillance prior to an invasion event, to allow mitigation actions to be quickly implemented. View Full-Text
Keywords: Amblyomma; invasive species; MaxEnt; species distribution modeling; ticks Amblyomma; invasive species; MaxEnt; species distribution modeling; ticks

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Pascoe, E.L.; Marcantonio, M.; Caminade, C.; Foley, J.E. Modeling Potential Habitat for Amblyomma Tick Species in California. Insects 2019, 10, 201.

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