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Acoustic, Pitfall Trap, and Visual Surveys of Stored Product Insect Pests in Kenyan Warehouses

1
Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Conseil Quest et Centre Africain pour la Recherche et le Développement Agricoles (CORAF), 7 Avenue Bourguiba, Dakar, BP 48, Dakar RP, Senegal
3
Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, University of Kassel, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany
4
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
5
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10040105
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Abstract

Grain production is an important component of food security in Kenya but due to environmental conditions that favor rapid growth of insect populations, farmers and other agricultural stakeholders face ongoing and novel challenges from crop and stored product pest insects. To assist development of methods to reduce economic losses from stored product insect pests in Kenya, acoustic, visual, and pitfall trap surveys were conducted in five grain storage warehouses. Two commercially available acoustic systems successfully detected the pests of greatest economic importance, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) and Prostephanus truncatus (Horn). Other insects of lesser economic importance also were observed in the visual surveys, including Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). This study demonstrated that the use of acoustic technology with visual surveys and pitfall traps can help managers to identify and target infestations within their warehouses, enabling them to reduce postharvest losses. With most warehouses being located in relatively noisy urban or peri-urban areas, background noise considerations are being incorporated into the design of future acoustic detectors for stored pest infestations. Kenya must import grain yearly to meet consumption needs; however, if the current yearly postharvest losses of 20–30% in warehouses decreased, import costs could be reduced considerably. View Full-Text
Keywords: Prostephanus truncatus; Sitophilus zeamais; Tribolium castaneum; Sitotroga cerealella; postharvest loss; grain; pest; background noise Prostephanus truncatus; Sitophilus zeamais; Tribolium castaneum; Sitotroga cerealella; postharvest loss; grain; pest; background noise
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Njoroge, A.; Affognon, H.; Richter, U.; Hensel, O.; Rohde, B.; Chen, D.; Mankin, R. Acoustic, Pitfall Trap, and Visual Surveys of Stored Product Insect Pests in Kenyan Warehouses. Insects 2019, 10, 105.

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