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Insects 2019, 10(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10030064

The Phylogenetic Relationships of Tiaronthophagus n.gen. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Onthophagini) Evaluated by Phenotypic Characters

1
Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Via Accademia Albertina 13, I-10123 Torino, Italy
2
2 rue Marcel Sembat, F-83200 Toulon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract

A necro-coprophagous new genus tha is widespread in the whole Sub-Saharan Africa was identified within the tribe Onthophagini and named Tiaronthophagus n.gen. The new genus, which is well characterized by an exclusive set of characters, comprises, at present, 26 species. Twenty species were formerly included in the genus Onthophagus and six were identified and here described as new species: Tiaronthophagus angolensis n.sp., T. jossoi n.sp., T. katanganus n.sp., T. rolandoi n.sp., T. saadaniensis n.sp., and T. zambesianus n.sp. A phylogenetic analysis that is based on a combined matrix, including discrete and landmark characters, was done. The landmark characters were tested using the geometric morphometrics techniques before their inclusion in the matrix. One single, fully resolved tree was obtained, with Tiaronthophagus constituting a distinct, monophyletic clade within Onthophagini, which was clearly separated from the other genera examined here. The biogeographical analysis identified the Central Africa as the ancestral area of the new genus and it mainly accounted for dispersal events leading to the present distribution. The generic rank that is assigned to the taxon is supported by the results of the morphological, phylogenetic, and biogeographical analyses, and by the comparison to the outgroups. View Full-Text
Keywords: systematics; new species; new genus; geometric morphometrics; combined phylogenetic analysis; biogeography; necro-coprophagous habits; Afrotropical distribution systematics; new species; new genus; geometric morphometrics; combined phylogenetic analysis; biogeography; necro-coprophagous habits; Afrotropical distribution
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Roggero, A.; Moretto, P.; Barbero, E.; Palestrini, C. The Phylogenetic Relationships of Tiaronthophagus n.gen. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Onthophagini) Evaluated by Phenotypic Characters. Insects 2019, 10, 64.

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