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Open AccessArticle

A Preferred Orientation Angle for Bipolar Planetary Nebulae

Laboratory for Space Research, Hong Kong University, Hong Kong, China
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Galaxies 2020, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8020034
Received: 26 February 2020 / Revised: 16 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplans II: Workshop for Planetary Nebula Observations)
We present preliminary results from measuring Galactic orientation angles of 766 elliptical and bipolar Planetary Nebulae (PNe) in the Hong Kong/Australian Astronomical Observatory/Strasbourg Observatory H-alpha Planetary Nebula research platform and database (HASH DB). For elliptical PNe the distribution of orientation angles is found to be more or less uniform. However, for bipolar PNe there is statistically significant evidence for preferred orientation angles (as tentatively reported before with smaller samples) across the whole Galaxy. View Full-Text
Keywords: methods: statistical; astronomical data bases; planetary nebulae: general methods: statistical; astronomical data bases; planetary nebulae: general
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ritter, A.; Parker, Q.A. A Preferred Orientation Angle for Bipolar Planetary Nebulae. Galaxies 2020, 8, 34.

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