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The Flatness Problem and the Variable Physical Constants

Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
Galaxies 2019, 7(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies7030077
Received: 6 August 2019 / Revised: 28 August 2019 / Accepted: 5 September 2019 / Published: 7 September 2019
We have used the varying physical constant approach to resolve the flatness problem in cosmology. Friedmann equations are modified to include the variability of speed of light, gravitational constant, cosmological constant, and the curvature constant. The continuity equation obtained with such modifications includes the scale factor-dependent cosmological term as well as the curvature term, along with the standard energy-momentum term. The result is that as the scale factor tends to zero (i.e., as the Big Bang is approached), the universe becomes strongly curved rather than flatter and flatter in the standard cosmology. We have used the supernovae 1a redshift versus distance modulus data to determine the curvature variation parameter of the new model, which yields a better fit to the data than the standard ΛCDM model. The universe is found to be an open type with a radius of curvature R c = 1.64   ( 1 + z ) 3.3 c 0 / H 0 , where z is the redshift, c 0 is the current speed of light, and H 0 is the Hubble constant. View Full-Text
Keywords: flatness problem; variable physical constants; inflation; cosmology theory; dark energy flatness problem; variable physical constants; inflation; cosmology theory; dark energy
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Gupta, R.P. The Flatness Problem and the Variable Physical Constants. Galaxies 2019, 7, 77.

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