Next Article in Journal
Challenges and Techniques for Simulating Line Emission
Next Article in Special Issue
The Formation of Fullerenes in Planetary Nebulae
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
X-ray Shaping of Planetary Nebulae
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Galaxies 2018, 6(3), 99;

AGBs, Post-AGBs and the Shaping of Planetary Nebulae

Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Nice 06304, France
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae VII)
PDF [1483 KB, uploaded 20 September 2018]


During the last decades, observations, mostly with the Hubble Space Telescope, have revealed that round Planetary Nebulae were the exception rather than rule. A huge variety of features are observed, such as jets, discs, tori, showing that the ejection of material is not due to isotropic radiation pressure on a spherical shell and that more physics is involved. This shaping process certainly occur early in the evolution of these low and intermediate mass stars and must leave imprints in the evolutionary stages prior the PN phase. Thanks to news instruments on the most advanced telescopes (e.g., the VLTI, SPHERE/VLT and ALMA), high angular resolution observations are revolutionising our view of the ejection of gas and dust during the AGB and post-AGB phases. In this review I will present the newest results concerning the mass loss from AGB stars, post-AGB stars and related objects. View Full-Text
Keywords: AGB stars; post-AGB stars; planetary nebulae AGB stars; post-AGB stars; planetary nebulae

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lagadec, E. AGBs, Post-AGBs and the Shaping of Planetary Nebulae. Galaxies 2018, 6, 99.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Galaxies EISSN 2075-4434 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top