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Galaxies 2018, 6(4), 101;

The Formation of Fullerenes in Planetary Nebulae

Department of Physics and Astronomy and Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration (CPSX), The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
Robert Hooke Building, Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
ACRI-ST, 260 Route du Pin Montard, 06904 Sophia-Antipolis, France
W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Highway, Kamuela, HI 96743, USA
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae VII)
PDF [337 KB, uploaded 21 September 2018]


In the last decade, fullerenes have been detected in a variety of astrophysical environments, with the majority being found in planetary nebulae. Laboratory experiments have provided us with insights into the conditions and pathways that can lead to fullerene formation, but it is not clear precisely what led to the formation of astrophysical fullerenes in planetary nebulae. We review some of the available evidence, and propose a mechanism where fullerene formation in planetary nebulae is the result of a two-step process where carbonaceous dust is first formed under unusual conditions; then, the fullerenes form when this dust is being destroyed. View Full-Text
Keywords: planetary nebulae; fullerenes planetary nebulae; fullerenes

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Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Doppmann, G.; De Buizer, J. The Formation of Fullerenes in Planetary Nebulae. Galaxies 2018, 6, 101.

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