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Galaxies 2018, 6(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies6020047

Hadronic Models of the Fermi Bubbles: Future Perspectives

1,†,* and 2,1,†,*
1
Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa
2
Center for Astrophysics and Cosmology, University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13, SI-5000 Nova Gorica, Slovenia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract

The origin of sub-TeV gamma rays detected by Fermi-LAT from the Fermi bubbles at the Galactic center is still unknown. In a hadronic model, acceleration of protons and/or nuclei and their subsequent interactions with gas in the bubble volume can produce observed gamma rays. Such interactions naturally produce high-energy neutrinos, and a detection of those can discriminate between a hadronic and a leptonic origin of gamma rays. Additional constraints on the Fermi bubbles gamma-ray flux in the TeV range from recent HAWC observations restrict hadronic model parameters, which in turn disfavor Fermi bubbles as the origin of a large fraction of neutrino events detected by IceCube along the bubble directions. We revisit our hadronic model and discuss future constraints on parameters from observations in very high-energy gamma rays and neutrinos. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fermi bubbles; hadronic model; gamma rays; neutrinos Fermi bubbles; hadronic model; gamma rays; neutrinos
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Razzaque, S.; Yang, L. Hadronic Models of the Fermi Bubbles: Future Perspectives. Galaxies 2018, 6, 47.

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