Next Article in Journal
A Genome-Wide Association Study of Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy in African Americans
Previous Article in Journal
P450 Pharmacogenetics in Indigenous North American Populations
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Pers. Med. 2018, 8(1), 10;

Gene Environment Interactions and Predictors of Colorectal Cancer in Family-Based, Multi-Ethnic Groups

College of Nursing and Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
College of Business, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
University of Phoenix, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA
Center of Metabolomics, Institute of Metabolic Disease, Baylor Scott & White Research Institute, Dallas, TX 75226, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [10878 KB, uploaded 23 February 2018]   |  


For the personalization of polygenic/omics-based health care, the purpose of this study was to examine the gene–environment interactions and predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) by including five key genes in the one-carbon metabolism pathways. In this proof-of-concept study, we included a total of 54 families and 108 participants, 54 CRC cases and 54 matched family friends representing four major racial ethnic groups in southern California (White, Asian, Hispanics, and Black). We used three phases of data analytics, including exploratory, family-based analyses adjusting for the dependence within the family for sharing genetic heritage, the ensemble method, and generalized regression models for predictive modeling with a machine learning validation procedure to validate the results for enhanced prediction and reproducibility. The results revealed that despite the family members sharing genetic heritage, the CRC group had greater combined gene polymorphism rates than the family controls (p < 0.05), on MTHFR C677T, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, and DHFR 19 bp except MTHFR A1298C. Four racial groups presented different polymorphism rates for four genes (all p < 0.05) except MTHFR A1298C. Following the ensemble method, the most influential factors were identified, and the best predictive models were generated by using the generalized regression models, with Akaike’s information criterion and leave-one-out cross validation methods. Body mass index (BMI) and gender were consistent predictors of CRC for both models when individual genes versus total polymorphism counts were used, and alcohol use was interactive with BMI status. Body mass index status was also interactive with both gender and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism, and the exposure to environmental pollutants was an additional predictor. These results point to the important roles of environmental and modifiable factors in relation to gene–environment interactions in the prevention of CRC. View Full-Text
Keywords: gene–environment interaction; colorectal cancer; predictor; multi-ethnic groups gene–environment interaction; colorectal cancer; predictor; multi-ethnic groups

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shiao, S.P.K.; Grayson, J.; Yu, C.H.; Wasek, B.; Bottiglieri, T. Gene Environment Interactions and Predictors of Colorectal Cancer in Family-Based, Multi-Ethnic Groups. J. Pers. Med. 2018, 8, 10.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Pers. Med. EISSN 2075-4426 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top