Next Article in Journal
A Database-driven Decision Support System: Customized Mortality Prediction
Previous Article in Journal
Health 2050: The Realization of Personalized Medicine through Crowdsourcing, the Quantified Self, and the Participatory Biocitizen
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Pers. Med. 2012, 2(3), 119-137;

Field of Genes: An Investigation of Sports-Related Genetic Testing

Center for the Integration of Genetic Healthcare Technologies, University of Pennsylvania, 1112 Penn Tower, 399 S. 34th St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Duke Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, Duke University, 304 Research Drive, Box 90141, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2012 / Revised: 22 August 2012 / Accepted: 28 August 2012 / Published: 12 September 2012
PDF [829 KB, uploaded 12 September 2012]


Sports-related genetic testing is a sector of the diverse direct-to-consumer (DTC) industry that has not yet been examined thoroughly by academic scholars. A systematic search was used to identify companies in this sector and content analysis of online information was performed. More than a dozen companies were identified. Marketing practices observed generally did not target parents for child testing, and marketing images were mild compared to images used in popular media. Information was provided at a high reading level (industry-wide Flesh-Kincaid Grade Levels > 11). While ~75% of companies provide privacy policies and terms of service prior to purchase and ~40% provide scientific citations for their tests. View Full-Text
Keywords: sports; athletics; genetic tests; ELSI; direct-to-consumer sports; athletics; genetic tests; ELSI; direct-to-consumer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wagner, J.K.; Royal, C.D. Field of Genes: An Investigation of Sports-Related Genetic Testing. J. Pers. Med. 2012, 2, 119-137.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Pers. Med. EISSN 2075-4426 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top